Monday, August 27, 2012

Vandhe BHagawatham

Vande  Bhagwatham
Salutations to Bhagwatham

Translated  By,

(Bhagawatha  is  one of the greatest books  composed by Veda Vyasa. It was related by sage Shuka, the son of Veda Vyasa   to king Parikshith . Here is an unusual prayer   which is addressed   to that great book. The Sanskrit  original can be found in!topic/viprasamhitha/eEoI1mQdyRg )

1.Veda Kalpa tharu suphalam, Veda  Vyasa  krutham,
 Pranamami  thwaam pranamami

I  salute    you , salute you ,
The  good fruit giving  Kalapka  tree  of the Vedas,
Which has   been  composed  by  Veda  Vyasa.

2.Sri Shukha keera  mukha Achyutha krishnamrutha   sahitham,
Dwadasa   divya   skandam, Jnana virathi    sahitham,
Pranamami thwam pranamami

I salute you  , salute   you,
Along  nectar  of Achyutha   and Krishna,
Which fell from  the parrot like   of Shukha ,
Having twelve    chapters , which is the end of Jnana.

3.Brahma sarga manvanthara  kapiladhika  jushtam,
Druva Prahladha charithram bhavukatha   pushtam,
Pranamami   thwam pranamami.

I  salute you  , salute you,
Consisting of   creation of Brahma  , the period of Manu  and the story of Kapila,
And the story of  Dhruva   and Prahaladha , which are   auspicious.

4.Parama bhagawatha  suyaso gajapathi soubhagyam,
Sindhu madana Bali dhanam vilasitha vairagyam,
Pranamami   thwam pranamami

I salute you  , salute you,
The great luck  of   the great  devotee   who was  the famous lord of elephants,
The churning   of the ocean, the present given by Mahabali and the shining asceticism .

5.Visada  Bhgawad avatharam, Rama Gunaramam,
Punya sloka sukeerthya  pooritha  jana  kamam,
Pranamami   thwam pranamami .

I salute you , salute you ,
The detailed  incarnation of God , the Rama  who is  the resting place of all  that is good ,
And the fulfillment  of desires of people which was  eulogized by  great people .

6.Krishna kadhamrutha  sindhum, vangmaya   roopa harim,
Sraya hari leela  lalitham , bhava nidhi  divya tharim,
Pranamami thwam  pranamami

I salute you , salute you,
The sea   of the stories of Krishna  who steals the mind and words  by his beauty,

7,Sravanadwasya  parikshith golokam yatha,
Giridhara   Hrudayam bhagwan pavaya karunatha ,
Pranamami   thwam pranamami  .

I salute you, salute you ,
Hearing you  Parikshith   went to the land of Vishnu  ,
You are   the heart of  he who lifted the mountain,
And  would purify  me by the mercy of the God.

Shiva Puranam of Saint Manikka Vasagar

Shiva  Puranam

Saint  Manikka vasagar

Translated   by  

(Manikka Vasagar   was  one of the four great   Nayanmars (saivite   saints )  of Tamil Nadu  , who was a great   poet as well  as great contributor to the SAivite philosophy.  His collection of works   is called Thiruvachakam.   Due to  the sweetness  and greatness  of this work, there   is a proverb in Tamil which says, “Thiruvasagathukku urugaar , yebbasagathukkum Urugaar”( One who does not melt for  Thiruvasagam  will not melt for any literary work). The first  prayer   in THiruvasagam is the Shiva   Puranam . It was composed in  a Shiva temple called  Thiruperum thurai
  Unlike   suggested by the name   it is not the epic  dealing with the stories of Shiva . In tamil  Jeeva (the individual soul is called  “ Cheevaa” . According to the philosophy of Saivism , the jeeva   is  prevented from the realization of God  by three impurities  (Anava(pride) , Karma, and Maya) and only approach to Shiva can   remove these impurities.  This Shiva puranam  attempts  to portray   the jeeva   towards Shiva and is aptly called  “Shiva  Puranam” , The famous  English translation of Shiva Puranam  by  Mr.G.U.Pope  (fondly called Popeiyer)  is available in G.U.Pope’s translation
There is also a great commentary in Tamil  Which includes   the Tamil  text  of this work in and the audio  is Audio by Sulamangalam sisters  is  available   in )

Namasivaya  vaazhga  , Nadan  thal vazzhga ,
Imai podum   yennenjil   neengaadhan thal vazhga.
Kokazhi aanda guru mani than  thaal vaazhga,
Agamam aagi  nindru annippan vaazhga,
Yekan anegan  iraivan adi Vaazhga(1-5)

Long live  Namasivaya, Long live the holy feet of our Lord,
Long live the feet of him who  does not move away  from my mind even for a second.
Long live the feet of  my Guru  who ruled over Thiruvavaduthurai(Thiruperum thurai ?)*,
Long live  the feet  of  him who became  holy books  and comes near us,
Long live the feet of  the God who was  one but  appeared  as many.
                                                 *Shiva   temple in Tamil Nadu .
Vegam   keduthu aanda   vendan adi   velga,
Pirapparukkump injakan than  pey kazhalgal velga,
Puratharkkum cheyon than poomkazhalgal velga,
Karam kuvivaar ul magizhum kon   kazhalgal  velga,
Siram kuvivaar onguvikkum cheeron kazhal  velga.(6-10)

Let the feet of the God who stabilized my mind be victorious,
Let the valorous anklets  of Lord Shiva , who cuts off cycle of birth be victorious
Let the  flower like anklets   of  the God,  who is scarce  to those  who stand away from him  be victorious,
Let the anklets of king who happily lives  in the mind of those   who salute him be victorious,
Let the anklets  of that   great one  who uplifts  those  who bend their head  to him  be victorious.

Eesan adi pothi, Yenthai adi pothi,
Nesanadi pothi,  Sivan Sevadi pothi,
Neyathey  nindra nimalan   adi pothi  ,
Maya pirappu  arukkum   mannan adi pothi ,
Cheeraar   perum thurai   nama devan  adi pothi(11-15)

Praise   to the feet of God, Praise to the feet  of my father,
Praise to the feet of my friend, praise  to the red  feet  of shiva,
Praise  to  the feet of  the pure  god who stood  in love ,
Praise to the feet  of the king who cuts off   the illusion called  birth,
Praise to the feet  of god who is in holy  Thiruperumthurai  .

Aaratha inbam arulum  malai pothi  ,
Sivan avan yen sinthayul  ninra athanaal  ,
Avan arulaale    avan thal  vanagi  ,
Chinthai magizha   Siva puranam  thanai,
Munthai  vinai muzhuthum   oya uraippan naan.(16-20)

Praise to the God  who gives the never fading  joy like a mountain of mercy,
Because   that  Lord Shiva   stood  in my thought  ,
I would  salute his feet   by his    grace ,
And with  a joyful mind  recite  the Shiva Purana,
So that   the entire  Karma  which I have earned earlier  disappears.

Kan nuthalaan than karunai kan kaatta  vandeythi,
Yennutharkettaa  vezhilaar  kazhal  irainji ,
Vin nirainthum  , man niranthum m ikkai  vilakku oiliyaai ,
Yenn iranthu     yellai illathaane   nin perum cheer ,
Pollaa vinayen pugazhum  maru ondru ariyen.(21-25)

I came because   the god  with an eye  in his forehead showed me  his  eye of mercy,
And stood    there saluting   the anklet  , whose  prettiness  is  beyond the   reach of the mind  ,
And oh God   who filled  the sky and the earth   , and who is being seen as  a glittering light  ,
Oh God  who is beyond  all limitations of barrier , I who   am one   with a bad  karma  ,
And   do not know  the ways  to praise   your great qualities

Pullagi, poodai puzhuvai maramaki,
Pala  virugamagi  pravayai  , pambaki  ,
Kallai  , manitharai   peyai , ganangalai  ,
Val asuraragi , munivaraai , devaraai  ,
Chellaaa nindra , ithathavara  jangamathukkul ,
Yella pirappum piranthu  ,ilaithen, yem perumaane.(26-31)

Oh lord   by becoming grass, small plants , worms  , trees ,
Several types of animals  , birds  , snakes ,
Stone  , human beings  , ghosts  , different types of devils,
Strong asuras , sages   devas ,
And I traveled  all over  this spectrum of moving and not moving things ,
And took     all   types   of  births  and became  tired.

Meyye Un  ponnadikal kandu  indru veedu uthen,
Uyya  yen ullathul ongaramai nindra  ,
Meyya  , vimala , vidaipaka  , vedangal  ,
Iyya   yena vongi  aazhndu   agandra  nunniyane  (32-35)

Truly   I have attained    salvation seeing your golden feet,
Oh  God, who stood as letter “Om”, in my mind  so that  I would be saved,
Oh truth, oh purity  , Oh Lord who rides on a   bull,
Oh God whom Vedas  called  “Oh Lord”, with great surprise ,
And tried  to see you as taller, higher  deeper though you are  smaller than the small.

Veyyayai, thaniyaai , iyamaananaam vimalaa,
Poi  aayin yellam poi akala vandharuli  ,
Mei jnanam aagi milirgindra  mei chudare ,
Yejjanam illathen inba perumale  ,
Agjnan thannai agalvikkum nal arrive.   (36-40)

Oh divinely pure Lord who is  heat , cold   as well as life  ,
You came and showered   your grace so that  all lies are banished,
And shined  as  knowledge   of the divine  , Oh  light  of truth ,
Oh God  of sweetness  to this one who does not have  any knowledge ,
Oh  great wisdom,  who   is    removing   my ignorance  .

AAkkam  alavu  iruthi illai , anaithulagum,
AAkkuvaai, kaapaai, azhippai  , arul tharuvai,
Pokkuvai , yennai puguvippai   nin thozhumpin,
Naathathin neriyai cheyai  , naniyaane ,
Matham manam kazhiya nindra   marayone  .  (41-45)

Oh god who does not have birth  , life or death  ,
You are   the one   who makes   all the world,
You would protect , destroy   and also   shower your grace  ,
Destroy  the illusion , and make    me to serve you ,
Oh god  who is like   a scented flower ,
Though you  are far , far away  , you are  near  ,
Oh Lord of Vedas  , who is beyond mind and thought .

Karantha paal kannalodu nei  kalanthor pol,
Chiranthu adiyar chinthanayul then oori  nindru,
Pirantha  pirappu arukkm yengal peruman,
Nirangal or  iynthu udayai  , vinnorgal yetha,
Marainthu irunthai  yen peruman,valvinai yen thannai,
Marainthida moodiya  irulai  ,
Arambhavam  yenum arum kayithaal   katti,
Puram thol porthu , yengum puzhu azhukku moodi,
Malam chorum onpathu    vayil kudilai,
Malanga  pulangal  iynthum vanchanayai   cheyya(46-55)

Oh my lord , who puts a stop  to cycle   of births  ,
By standing  in the   minds of  great devotees,
Like honey which is  the mixture of   newly  milked milk  ,
Honey    and Ghee , you are  the  one having all the five colours,
And you   were  hiding   from the   view   of devas ,
Who were not able to see  you and praise   you , oh lord.
Please    tie me  , who is caught  in the   horrible past Kama,
And is being hidden  completely by darkness  of illusion
by  considerations    of  all the  acts  ,
That   can be done and should not be done  ,
And tie me with a rope of  sins and good acts
And further    cover the dirt and worms  of my inside  by a skin,
And  construct me as  a hut with nine holes,
Through which   all   that  is not wanted   goes out,
With the five senses  deceiving me and  put me in to a stupor ,

Vilangum manathal  , Vimalaa unakku,
Kalantha anbaagi , kasinthu ul urugum,
Nalam than ilatha   siriyerkku nalgi,
Nilam than mel vanthu aruli , neel kazhalkal kaatti,
Nayir kidayai kidantha adiyerkku  ,
Thayir chirantha  dhayavana  , thatthuvane (56-61)

 Oh God , who is pure, though I am With an unstable (animal like ) mind, ,
Which does  not merge with you   due to  extreme love  ,
 Which does    not   melt   on hearing you
And which   does not have  any good in it ,
You   have   taken  mercy  on this  lowly  one,
And came on this earth and showed me your long feet  
And showed  much more mercy than a  mother ,
To   me who was   lying   even worse   than a dog.

Masatha jyothi malarntha   malar   chudare  ,
Desane, theanar amudhe  , Shivapurane  ,
Pasamaam   patthu  aruthu  parikkum  aariyane  ,
Nesa arul   purinthu   nenjil  vanjam keda  ,
Peraathu nindra   perum karunai  peraare.(62-66)

Oh  blemish less flower  like flame,
Which appears like  a  rising   light  ,
Oh sparkling one , oh nectar like honey  ,
Oh Lord    who    has   the city of Shiva  ,
Oh wise one   who  showered  your grace ,
By cutting off   all my   affectionate attachments,
Shower your  friendly grace , cut of all hatred  from my mind,
Oh great river  of mercy , which never leaves my mind.

AAraa amudhe , alavilaa  pemmane  ,
Oraathaar ullathu  olikkum oiyaane,
Neerai urukki   yen aaruyirai   nindraane ,
Inbavum   thunbavum illanne  , ullane. (67-70)

Oh never  satiating nectar , Oh God who is beyond measurement  ,
Oh  light who  hides himself  in a mind which is not  interested,
Oh God who made my mind melt and stood there  as my dear life,
Oh god who does not have happiness   or hardships and who stands  inside me.

Anbarukku anbane  , Yavayumai, allaiyumai,
Chothiyane  thunnirule , thondra perumayane,
Aadhiyane antham naduvagi  allane  ,
Eerthu yennai aat konda  yenthai perumane  ,
Koortha mey  jnanthaal kondu unarvar tham karuthin ,
Nokkariya nokke , nunukku ariya  nun unarve.(71-76)

Oh friend to your devotees ,  Oh God  who is everything  as well as nothing  ,
Oh God who is a flame , Oh God who is darkness , Oh God who is never  born,
Oh primeval one   who has crossed  the state  of middle as well as end,
Oh Lord who  as a father ,  attracted me and made  me yours,
Oh God  who  can be known only by the   very intelligent ones ,
And their look  is a   rare  one which is to be appreciated ,
And their understanding  you   is a rare  feeling.

Pokkum varavum punarvum illa punniyane  ,
Kakkum yen kavalane , kanbariya peroliye  ,
Aathru inba vellame  , Atha  mikkai nindra,
Thotha chuddar  oliyai  chollatha  nun unarvai.  (77-80)

Oh blessed  Lord who never goes  , comes or joins,
Oh  Guard  who protects me, Oh  great light which is difficult to see ,
Oh sweet  water  of grace  , you are  more than my father ,
And  stand before me as   great light  and an indescribable micro  feeling,

Maathamaam vaiyakathin , vevvere  vandhu arivaam,
THethane , thetha   thelive , yen chindanai ul,
OOthaana unnar amudhe , udayaane  ,
Vethru vikara   vidakku udambin  ul kidappa,
AAthen yem ayya  arane oh yendru yendru. 
Pothi pugahndhirundu   poi kettu  mei aanaar   (81-86)

Oh clarity ,  who comes  in different forms  of this changing world,
Oh  complete understanding   due    to that   clarity  ,
Oh  nectar of feeling which flows   in my thoughts  ,
Oh God who owns me  , Oh Sir  , I am not able  to,
Lie  tied up in this body made of flesh  and sensations,
Oh Lord  , Oh Shiva  , Like this   they  praised ,
And  left this  untrue body   and got the true body(Lord Shiva)

Meetingu   vandhu vinai   piravi Chaaraame ,
Kalla pula kkurambai kettu azhikka   vallane  ,
Nal iruil nattam payindru  aadum nadhane,
Thillai ul koothane  , then pandi naattane.(87-90)

Oh God who is capable   of destroying   this body,
Which is the  place   where the deceiving five senses reside ,
And which has  been prevented   from coming   again .
Oh Lord who   dances   even in mid night  when all world sleeps  ,
Oh Lord who dances in Chidambaram who is from the southern Pandya kingdom.

Allal piravi aruppavane oh endru,
Chollarkku ariyanai cholli thiruvadi keezh ,
Cholliya paatin chol unarnthu   cholluvaar  ,
Chelvaa shiva purathin ullar , Sivan adi keezh  ,
Pallorum yetha   panithu  .

Oh lord who cuts of   this   painful life of birth,
Those   who called you  God    , who cannot  be  understood , as “ oh god”
And understand  this song which was  sung below your  feet  ,
Would  go to  the    wealthy  land of Shiva’s city  ,
And would remain below  the feet   of Lord Shiva  ,
Being prayed  and worshipped   by many.


Raghu Veera Gadhyam of Vedantha Desika

                         (Maha  Veera   Vaibhavam   of  Sri Vedantha   Desika)

                                                                Translated   by
                                                           ( P.R.Ramachander)                

“Vedanta Desika's Raghuveera Gadyam, which celebrates Lord Rama's valour, was composed when he was residing at the temple town of Thiruvendipuram in Tamil Nadu. The temple has icons of Rama, Lakshmana and Sita, and here Rama is seen as Kodandarama (with a bow in His hand).
Inspired by this, Desika wrote Raghuveera Gadyam, in which he focuses on Rama as a ‘veera' (warrior). But Rama was not an ordinary warrior. He was a ‘mahaveera.' He was not only capable of fighting courageously Himself, but could also lead an army. Thus, He combined in Himself the qualities of courage and leadership. Hence, Desika referred to Him as a ‘mahaveera,' said Vaduvur Veeraraghavachariar. In fact, Raghuveera Gadyam is known as Mahaveera Vaibhavam.” Gadhya means “prose” . The great poet chose this unusual form possibly   because  the existence of Three great books (Gadhya Thrayam) written in Gadhyam style by by the great Acharya  Ramanuja,”(Source :
    The book does not  attempt to tell the story of Ramayana  and not even summarize   Ramayana but   brings before us    some of the very important and striking   scenes of Ramayana .  The words used  vary from soft to hard  and   takes great care   to make  it most suitable to describe the scene that   it depicts.
      This is a simple translation. Readers interested to read a very scholarly translation with commentaries    are requested to  visit
.Euology  to Vedantha Desika

Sriman Venkatanatharya  kavi tharkika Kesari,
Vedanthacharya varyoh  may sannidatham hrudhi

Venktanatha the lion among poets and debate,
Who is a great scholar of Vedantha,
Keeps the Lord always in his mind.

Salutation to God  Rama

Jayathi  asritha santhrasa dwantha vidwamsanodhaya,
Prabhaavaan Sitaya devyaa parama  vyoma  Bhaskara

Victory  to him  who is the destroyer  of fear
Of darkness  to those   who surrender  to him,
And that  lord of splendour   is  the  divine Sun,
 In the   sky    of the    Goddess  Sita.

 Text   of Maha  Veera Vaibhavam also called  Raghu Veera  Gadhyam

1. Jaya , jaya, Maha veera ,
 2,Maha dheera dhoureya,jaya, jaya
3. Devasura  samara  samaya  samudhitha  nikhila nirjara  nirdharitha  niravadhika, Mahatmya,
4.Dasa vadana  dhamitha dhaivatha ,Parishad abhyarthitha dasarathi bhaava,
5.Dinakara kula kamala divakara,
6. Divishad adhidadhipathi  rana sahacharana chathura Dasaradha charama runa vimochana,
7.Kosala sudhaa kumara bhava kanchuchitha karanaakara,

      Victory, Victory to the greatly valorous one, Who is in front of  all very bold people,
Who during the war between devas and asuras , was accepted as one of unsurpassed and complete valour, who was imperishable  and of great  fame, who took the form of the son of Dasaratha as per the request of the devas who were troubled by the ten headed Ravana,
Who is the lotus opened by the Sun in the clan of the Sun, who by his birth removed the  debt for the manes of Dasaratha  who helped Indra during his war, who being born as the son of the daughter of Kosala and assumed the activities of a child and hid the real causal reason for his birth,

8.Koumara  keli gopayitha koushikaadwara,
9.Ranaa dwara durya bhavya divyasthra  brundha vandhitha,
10. Pranatha jana vimadhana  dhurlalitha dhorlalitha,

       Who like a sport of a lad protected the fire sacrifice of Sage Viswamithra, Who was saluted with humility  by the crowd of  divine arrows waiting for his commands at the battle, Who shines with his fearsome shoulders that lead to the destruction of enemies of those who salute him,

11.Thanuthatra vishikha vithaadana vighatitha visaararu shararu thadaka thadakeya, jaya, jaya

Who using his tiny arrows killed Thadaka and humiliated her sons, whoi were never troubled by any one before, victory. victory

12.Jada kirana sakala  dara jatila nata pathi makuta thata natanapatu vibhudha saritha  athibahula Madhu ganana lalitha patha nalini raja upa  mrudhitha nija vrujina jahadhupala thanuruchira  paramamudhivara yuvathi nutha,jaya , jaya

“You  were  praised  by  great lady ahalya, who was the wife of sage goutama, by cleansing her sin by the dust  and  touch  of  Your lotus feet, and also getting her true form from that of the state of being a stone. Your lotus feet is so pure and  holy  that  the  sacred  ganga which flowed from the head of the Lord Siva who is a master in dancing and who wears the moon as a ornament on his head.”, victory, victory(from

13.Kusika sutha kadhitha vidhitha nava  vividha kadha, jaya, jaya

You heard the  varied types of stories told by Viswamithra   the son of Kusika, victory, victory.

14.Maithila nagara  sulochana lochana chakora chandra, jaya, jaya

Oh Lord who was like  a Chakora bird’s moon to the pretty eyed ladies of Mithila, victory, victory
(Chakora is a mythical bird eating moon light  and waits for the moon)

15.Khanda parasu  Kothanda prakhanda khandana sounda bhuja danda  , jaya  , jaya

Breaking   the   bow   of Lord Shiva by your  arm , Oh strong armed one  , victory, victory.

16.Chanda kirana   mandala bodhitha pundareeka vana ruche luntake lochana  , jaya  , jaya

Your eyes stole   the beauty  of the lotus flowers   energized by the  piercing rays of the sun,  Victory, victory.

17.Mochitha Janaka hrudaya sankhathanga, jaya , jaya

You freed the heart of Janaka   of the doubt and worry,  Jaya , jaya

18.Parihrutha nikhila narapathi varana Janaka duhithru kuch thata  viharana samuchitha   kara  thala, jaya, jaya.

Seizing the wedding garland   from all other  kings , you had   the  suitable handle   to fondle   over   the chest  of the daughter  of Janaka , victory, victory.

19.Sathakoti sathaguna kadina parasudhara munivara  kara drutha duravanamathama nija Dhanur aakarshana prakasitha  paaramoshtyaa , jaya , jay

The sage with an axe  who had a in his hand, Hundred billions times hard and hundred times more efficient bow which was hard    practice , and you showed   that   you can  bend the bow to send an arrow and showed him your supreme glory.

20.Kruthuhara   shikhari kanthuka vihruthyunmukha jithahari danthi Dhandhura dasavadana dhamana kushala dasa satha bhuja mukha nrupathikula rudhira jara bharitha pruthuthara tataka tharpitha pithruka brughupathi sugadhi vihathi kara   natha parudishu paritha , jaya , jaya

You put an end  using a broad arrow resembling the lock of the door , to the good period of the  lord of Bhrugu  clan who killed 

the  king  with thousand arms and faces   who himself defeated   the ten faced Ravana, who shook the Kailasa  mountain, defeated  Devendra   and exhibited the wounds inflicted on him by   the majestic elephant of Indra

And also killed   twenty one generations  of kings and did   oblation to his father   in the pond filled   with their blood ., victory  , victory

Ayodhya Kandam

21.Anrutha bhaya mushitha hrudaya pithru vachana paalana prathijnaa vajnatha youa   rajya, jaya , jaya

For carrying out the orders of your  very fear   struck  father  who was  tied by   the oath he had given, you gave up the position of  Yuva Raja(crown prince), victory ,victory

22.Nishadha Raja Souhrudha soochitha sousheelya sagara , jaya  , jaya.

You proved that   you are ocean of   good nature by showing great friendship   to  the  hunter king,  Victory, victory.

23.Bhardawaja saasana parigraheetha vichithra chithra koota giri  kataka thata   ramya vasadha , jaya, jaya.

As per the   wish of sage Bhradwaja  you  lived in a pretty  house  on the foothills   of the  wonderful  Chithrakoota, victory, victory

24.Ananya  sasaneeya  , jaya  , jaya

You who cannot be commanded by anyone else , victory, victory

25.Pranatha Bharatha makuta thata sughatitha Padukagryabhisheka nivarthitha sarva  loka  Yoga kshema  , jaya, jaya

You   arranged   for   the crowning of  the   Slippers  by  Bharatha   , who saluted you  and   looked after   the welfare  of all people  , victory, victory.

26.Pisitha ruche vihitha duritha valamadhana thanaya Bali  bhuganugathi Sarabhasa sayana truna sakala paripathana   bhaya chakitha  sakala sura munivara bahumatha mahasthra samarthyaa, jaya  , jaya.

You sent a blade of grass   from your Durbha bed at   the son of Indra   in the form of crow ,interested in eating flesh  with the power of Brahmastra   and   he  greatly scared   approached   all gods    and sages, victory  , victory.

27.Druhina hara valamadhana duraaraksha  , saralaksha , jaya  , jaya.

Even all gods could not protect   that son of Indra    from the aim of   your arrow, victory, victory.

AAranya  Kandam

28.Dandakaa thapovana jangama  Parijatha , jaya, jaya.

You were the moving wish giving tree  of   Dandadka forest  , victory, victory.

29.Viraadha Harina Sardhoola  , jaya  , jaya

You were  like   to   the deer  called   Viradhaa , victory, victory

30.Vilulitha bahuphala  makha kalama rajanichara  mruga magrayaarambha sambrutha   cheera bruthanurodha, jaya jaya

Then you hunted   the Rakshasas like one hunts beasts to protect the crops  and protected the sages like a bark  protects them, victory, victory.

31.Trisira sirasthrithaya thimira niraasa vasarakara , jaya  , jaya

You  appeared  like the sun  who  banishes darkness   when you cut the three  heads of Trisiras, victory, victory

32.Dhooshana  jala nidhi soshana thoshitha rishigana ghoshitha vijaya  ghoshana  , jaya  , jaya.

You brought back water  in the treasure of water  dried   by Dhooshana (commander of Khara)   and sages hailed   your victory  . victory, victory.

33.Khara  thara, Khara   tharu khandana   , chanda  pavana  , jaya jaya

You were  the storm that broke  the ferocious Khara   in to two pieces, Victory, victory.

34.Dwisaptha raksha sahasra nala vana vilolana mahakalabha  , jaya , jaya.

You were   the  great elephant that uprooted  fourteen thousand    tree like rahshasas.

35.Aasahaaya  Sura, jaya jaya

An incomparable hero  , victory, victory

36.Anapaya  sahasa , victory  , victory

You were eternally brave  hero, victory, victory.

37.Mahitha mahamrudha darsana Maithili drudathara parirambhana   vibhava viropitha   vikata veeravruna , jaya, jaya.

Seeing  the greatly respected battle,  The daughter of Mithila   embraced you tightly , with your chest covered  with wounds of the battle  , victory, victory.

38. Mareecha maya  mruga charma parikarmitha nirbhara dharbhastharana , jaya , jaya

Your  bed of Dharbha grass . was spread with the    skin of the   illusory deer called Mareecha,  victory , victory.

39.Vikrama yaso laabha vikreetha jeevitha  grudra raja deha  dhidakshaa lakshitha
BHakthajana Dakshinya, jaya , jaya

You who has  softer emotions to your devotees , did the funeral rites   of the   kingof eagle   who with great valour fought     and lost is life .victory, victory

40.Kalpitha vibhudhga bhava Kabandha abhinandhitha, jaya , jaya

You were thanked   by Khabhanda who  regained   his   wise form , victory, victory

41.Avandhya mahima muni jana bhajana mushitha hrudaya kalusha SAbari moksha   sakshi Bhootha, jaya jaya

You were the witness to the salvation of  the lowly  Shabhari , who served    several saints of unblemished   reputation with enraptured mind , victory, victory

                                          Kishkinda   Kandam

42.Prabhanjana thanaya   bhavuka bhashitha ranjitha hrudaya, jaya , jaya

Your mind was pleased  by the auspicious  and polite talk   of the son of wind god, victory, victory

43.Tharani sutha SAranagatha parathanthrikrutha swathanthrya,   jaya  , jaya

You  sought  refuge  from   the son of Sun God  and by  that  you ceded  your independence to him,  victory, victory.

44.Druda gaditha  Kailasa koti vikata Dhundhbhi kankala koota dhoora vikshepa Daksha dakshinethara padangushta dara   chalana viswastha suhruda aasaya, jaya  , jaya.

You  gained the close friendship and belief by the movement  of your right thumb by which you threw the mountain like monstrous    skeleton of Dhundhubhi for a very long distance , victory, victory

45.Athi pruthula bahu vitapi giri dharani vivara yuga padhudhaya vivrutha chithra punkha vaichithrya,  jaya , jaya

You with your decorated    arrow pierced   the very broad trees, mountain  , earth and hell , Wonder of wonders, victory, victory.

46.Vipula bhuja saila moola nibhida nipeeditha Ravana rana ranaka  janaka chathuradhadhi viharana chathura  kapi kula pathi hrudaya  vishala silathala dharana dharuna silee mukha  , jaya  , jaya

You sent your fierce arrow  at the broad and stone like chest  of the   king of monkeys , who caught  the anxious  Ravana  who came to fight and keeping him in his arm pit   flew   to the four oceans  to do his daily oblations , victory, victory.

                                    Sundara   Kandam
47.Apaaraa Paaraavaara parigha  parivrutha  dhava davana javana pavana bhava   kapivara  bhavitha sarvaswa  dhana , jaya, jaya

You  embraced   the monkey lord   who was the son of wind god , which appeared to him as giving  all  that he desired  and you blessed  him    to cross   the very great ocean and set fire   to  the town.victory, victory

                                      Yudha   Kanda

48.Ahitha sahodhara   raksha parigraha  visamvaadhi vividha sachiva  visrambhana   samaya  samrambha  samujjrumbitha  sarveshwara   bhava  , jaya , jaya

You assumed your universal form to give confidence  to the different  ministers  when they were  considering the protection to be given to the brother   of the enemy., victory, victory

49-51 SAkruth prapannasamrakshana deekshitha, jaya, jaya
Veera,jaya, jaya,
Sathya Vrutha  jaya, jaya

49-51You had  taken   the  penance of  protecting those who surrender themselves to you,  victory  , victory
Valorous one  , victory, victory
One who has  penance of truth,  victory, victory.

52.Prathisayan bhoomika bhooshitha payodhi puina  , jaya, jaya

You who made   the sands of the   ocean   by lying down on  it decorating it with grass

53.Pralaya sikhi parusha vishikha shikhaa soshithaakoopaara vari poora  , jaya , jaya

You dried   up the waters  of the ocean by your flaming arrows, which resembled the  flame at deluge., victory, victory

54.Prabhala ripu kalaha   kuthuka chatula kapikula  thoolitha hrutha giri nikara    sadhitha sethu pada seemaa seemanthitha samudra  ,  jaya, jaya.

You built the bridge that divided the ocean  employing the  monkey clan who were eager for the war   and brought mountains as if they were  bales of cotton   and threw it in the sea,  victory, victory.

55.Drutha  gathi tharu mruga varoodhini nirudha lankha varodha vepadhu  lasya leelopadesa   desika dhanurjyaghosha, jaya, jaya

You  the teacher by  the sound of your bow instructed   the ladies of Lanka  in trembling like dance , when the   monkeys speedily   marched  and put their city under siege,  victory, victory

56.Gagana chara  kanaka giri  garima dhara  nigamamaya nija garuda  garudhanila lava galitha visha vadana  sara  khadana, jaya , jaya.

Your friend that  Garuda   who is the embodiment of Vedas came  like a golden mountain in the sky  and by the breeze of its wings chased  away the effect  that  poisonous  arrow ,  victory, victory.

57.Akruthachara vana chara rana karana vailakshya kooneethaksha bahuvidha raksho baladhyaksha vaksha  kavata  patina patima saatopa kopavalepa, jaya  , jaya

You  with  anger and valour split open the chests , like opening a door of Rakshasas whose  eyes   were shut because they were fighting against  lowly monkeys , victory, victory

58.Katuratadh atani tankruthi  chatula  katora kaarmukha vishikha vithadana vighatitha makuta vihwala  viswasthanaya  visrama samaya  visravana vikhyatha   vikarama  , jaya  , jaya

You  with great anger  after twanging   your bow  sent a flameless bow  which powdered    the crowns maing him scared   and you allowed   him to take rest showing your very famous valour., victory, victory

59.Kumbhakarna kula giri vidhalana  dhamboli Bhootha  ni shanka khgangapathra  , jaya  , jaya

You using a very powerful  arrow which is of unquestioned power  broke   their    family mountain  Kumbakarna,  victory  , victory

60.Abhicharana  huthawaha paricharana vighatana   sarabhasa  paripatha aparimitha kapi bhala  jaladhi lahari kalakalarava  kupitha Madha vajidh abhihanana kruth anuja saksheeka  Rakshasa dwadwa yudha , jaya, jaya

Your   brother who after  killing   Indrajith  with angry enthusiasm after disturbing  his black  magic homa  with  the limitless  monkey army by making screeching sounds  and  throwing  waves of water , witnessed   your great battle  with the Rakshasas with great pride , victory, victory.

61. Aprathi dwanda pourusha, jaya  , jaya

Your  absolute and incomparable valour in mutual fight   ,  victory , victory

62.TRayambaka  samadhika  ghorathradambara. Jaya , jaya

You are   have more fiercer   divine arrows   than lord Shiva

63.SAradhi hrutha  Radha sathrapa  shastrava sathyapitha prathapa, jaya  , jaya

Your fame was proved as true when the charioteer  of that Rakshasa king , lead  him away from the battle, victory, victory

64.Sitha sara  krutha lavana dasamukha  mukha dasaka  nipathana punar udaya dara galitha  janitha dara tharala harihaya nayana nalinavana ruche khachitha  nipathitha  sura tharu kusuma  vithathio surabhitha  Radha padha, jaya , jaya

Your  path of  chariot was made   scented by the showering of  flowers of Kalpaga tree which was   further added by the  thousand happy eyes of Indra, (which looked like a forest of fully opened lotus flowers)   seeing you cut off the heads of Ravana by  Brahmastra , after  they fell and appeared again .victory, victory

65.Akhila jagadadhika bhuja bala dasaka lavana  janitha  kadana paravasa   rajani chara  yuvathi vilapana vachana sama vishaya  nigama shikara nikara  mukhara muka muni vara  pari panitha  , jaya, jaya.

You were  saluted and praised by great   sages using  praises  worthy of Vedas  after Mandodhari , the young Rakshasa  lady  lamented at her loss   her very   strong lord of the universe  using  words containing Vedic truths due to her very great  sorrow.victory, victory

66.Abhigatha sathamuka huthvaha pithrupathi Niryathi Varuna Pavana Dhanadha Gireesa Mukha Surapathi nuthi mudhitha

You were approached by Indra , Agni, Yama  , Niruathi  , Varuna , Vayu  , Khubhera  , Lord Shiva  and were made   happy by their praises, victory, victory

67.Amitha mathi vidhi vidhitha  kadhitha nija vibhava jaladhi prushatha lava  , jaya, jaya

You were praised   Lord Brahma   who  had   very great wisdom  told about  your real greatness  and it was only a drop  in the ocean,  Victory, victory

68.Vigatha bhaya vibudha parivruda  veera sayana saayitha  vanara pruthanougha,  jaya, jaya

You then requested  Indra who has lost his fear to  bring back to life all the monkeys and he did it and the monkeys started  moving like a great  river., Victory, victory

69.Swasamaya   vighatitha  sughathitha sahrudhaya  saha dharma  charineeka, jaya, jaya

You again joined   with your wife (The partner   in execution of Dharma) , from  whom you had separated earlier  of your own free will.Victory, victory

70.Vibheeshana vasamvadheekrutha Lankaiswarya , jaya , jaya

You put Vibheeshana in complete   control of the wealth of Lanka., victory, victory

71.Nishpanna kruthya , jaya  , jaya

You completed your duties, victory, victory

72.Kha pushpitha ripu  paksha, jaya, jaya

You made  your enemies in to the flowers of the sky, victory, victory.

73.Pushpaka rabhasa   gathi ghoshpathikrutha gaganarnava , jaya  , jaya

By the speed of the Pushpaka Vimana , you made the sea  in to a hoof of a cow,  Victory, victory

74.Prathijnarnava tharana krutha Kshana Bharatha manoradha Samhitha Simhasanadhi rooda, jaya, jaya 

You fulfilled the   wish of Bharatha who had taken a vow to  jump in fire , by  sitting on the throne,  victory, victory

75.Swamin , jaya, jaya

My Lord   victory, victory

76.Raghava  Simha, jaya , jaya

Oh  Raghava the lion, victory, victory
                            Uthara  Khanda

77.Hataka giri kataka  ladaha pada peeta nikata thata pariluthidha nikhila nrupathi kireeta koti vividha mani gana kirana nikara neeraajitha charana rajiva , jaya  , jaya.

Your foot golden foot rest shined like   the  golden meru mountain and when  your shining lotus ,  was reflected in the crowns of the saluting kings , it appeared as if , it was being worshipped    with lighted   camphor.victory, victory

78.Divya bhouma  Ayodhya  adhi daivatha, jaya  , jaya

You were  the presiding deity of the two Ayodhyas (one in heaven and another in earth), victory , victory

79.Pithru vadha kupitha parasu dhara  muni vihitha nrupa hanana  kadana Poorva kala prabhava satha guna prathishtapitha  dharmika raja vamsa , jaya , jaya.

You reestablished good   royal families as   the previous generations  were killed by the axe bearing sage  who became angry because   his father  was killed , victory, victory.

80.Shubha charitha ratha Bharatha garvitha garva gandharva yoota getha vijaya  gadha satha  , jaya  , jaya

You sent the well loved Bharatha   with good  nature to fight  with the   proud  and haughty Gandharwas and after his victory that started singing and praising you  , victory, victory

81.Shasitha Madhu sutha  Shatrugna sevitha  , jaya , jaya

You  sent Shatrugna   to kill Lava   thson of Madhu  and after doing that   he started serving you again

82.Kusa lava parigrahitha kula Gadhaa visesham, Jaya  , jaya

Kusa and Lava learnt  the very special story  of your  clan,  victory, victory

83.Vidhi vasa parinamadha mara bhanithi kavi vara rachitha nija charitha nibhandhana nisamana nirvrutha, jaya, jaya 

You were thrilled to hear  the  discourse of your story    composed   by a great poet who saw   the death  due to turns of fate  ., victory, victory

84.SArva jana Sammanitha,  jaya, jaya

You who have breen glorified by all people, victory, victory

85.Punar upasthapitha vimana vara visravana praneetha vaisravana visravitha  yasa prapancha  , jaya , jaya

You returned as gift the Pushpaka Vimana   to Kubhers   who became happy and praised   you and your fame spread all over the world

86.Panchathapanna muni kumara  sanjeevanamrutha , jaya , jaya

You brought back to life the dead   son of a sage who was doing penance  , victory, victory

 87.Tretha yuga pravarthitha   Kartha yuga vruthantha  , jaya, jaya

You maintained in Krutha yugam, the dharma of Tretha  yugam, victory, victory

88.Avikala bahu suvarna haya mukha nirvahana nirvarthitha  nija varnasrama   dharma,

You followed the real Varnashrama dharma by giving as gift lots of gold and also conducting several Aswa Medha sacrifices,  Victory, victory

89.Sarva karma samaradhya jaya, jaya

You who were worshipped by performing   all duties by people , victory, victory

90.Sanathana Dharma jaya  jaya

Victory ,victory to  the religion of Hindus(Perennial Dharma with  no origin)

91.Sakhetha jana pada janidhanika janthu Jatha divya gathi dhana   darsitha nithya nisseema vaibhava,   jaya  , jaya

You  whose  fame is  always and limitless also gave    salvation  to all the people  of Ayodhya,  as well the animals living there , victory, victory

92.Bhava thapana thapitha bhaktha jana Bhadra    Rama, jaya  , jaya,

You take care   of the devotees suffering due to sorrow of  domestic life  and keep them safe, Victory, victory

93.Sri Rama Bhadra   Jaya, jaya

Victory , victory   to Rama Bhadra

94.Namasthe  , punasthe nama

Salutations and again salutations.
Chathur  mukheswara Mukhai puthra pouthradhi saline  ,
Nama Sita samethaya  Ramaya Gruha medine

Salutations to   Rama who is leading  family  life with Sita,
Who has  Lord Brahma   as son and Lord Parameswara as grand son.

Kavi Kadhika Simha  kadhitham katora sukumara  gumba  gambheera,
Bhava bhya bheshajam yethath padatha  Maha Veera  Vaibhavam Sudhiya.

Oh intellectuals   this  work called “The greatness  of the great hero”,
Has been   composed  by the poet who is the lion   among poets ,
And is made up of soft and hard  words   with deep implications,
 And     would destroy the fear  of  the disease  of domestic life.


(The octet on Vishnu)

Lord Yama

Translated by

(This very rare   prayer is given by Sri  K.Muraleedharan in Sanskrit  at
   This prayer  was composed by Lord Yama    addressing Lord Jaganaatha of Puri.  Lord Yama finds that whoever visits Puri are   not coming to his world after death,  After this prayer that Lord tells him that  not all people would be able to see  Jagannatha   and only those good people  who have the luck to see  him would come  to Vaikunta directly.)

Yama Uvacha:-         
Yama said:-

1.Namasthe Bhagawan  deva loka nadha  Jagat pathe,
Ksheerodha vasinam devam  sesha bhoganu sayinam.

Salutations   to God  who is the lord of land of devas  and  Lord of the universe,
Who is the god   who lives on the ocean of milk  , sleeping on  the snake called Aadhisesha.

2.Varam varenyam  varadam kartharam  akrutham prabhum,
Visweswaram ajam  Vishnum sarrvagnam  aparajitham.

Chosen one ,  he who is fit to be chosen , one who blesses, one who  does, Lord who need not do ,
Lord of the world, one who is not born , Vishnu , the know all  and one who is  never  defeated.

3.Neelothpala dala shyamam, pundareeka nibhekshanam,
Sarrvagnam, nirgunam, santham , jagad  dhataram avyayam.

One who is black like the leaves of blue lotus , He who is as pretty as lotus flower,
He who is an expert in everything , he who is devoid of properties , he who is peaceful ,
He who looks after   the world, He who is imperishable.

4.SArva loka vidhatharam , sarva loka sukhavaham,
Puranam, purusham vedhyam  thyakthavayaktha  sanathanam.

He who cares for all the world  , he who  gives  pleasures to all the world,
Primeval  , he who is Purusha , He who should is studied by Vedas,
He who is clear  as well as not colour and one who does  not have beginning.

5.Paravaraanam srushtaaram , loka nadham, jagad   gurum,
Srivathsoraska   samyuktham , vana mala   vibhushitham.

He who creates ancestors and descendents , lord of the world , teacher  of the world,
He who has the mole called Srivathsa  , he who decorates   himself by forest garland.

6.Peethavasthram, chathurbahum, Sankha chakra gadhadharam,
Hara  keyura samyuktham,  mukutangadha  dharinam.

He who wears yellow cloth  , he who has four hands , he  who holds conch, mace   and wheel,
He who wears crown as well as garland , he   who wears crown and bracelets.

7.Sarva lakshana sampoornam  , sarvendriya vivvarjitham,
Kootastham, achalam , sookshmam, jyothiroopam, sanathanam.

He who has all good attributes , he who has won over all sense organs ,
He who does not change  , he who does not move , he who is very minute ,
He who has   the form of a flame, He who does not have any beginning .

8.Bhavabhava vinirmuktham , vyapinam prakruthe  param,
Namasyami Jagannadham easwaram sukhadham prabhum.

He who is free from places   , He who is divine and  spread as it is his nature,
I salute that  Jagannadha , who is God  , He who is the lord giving pleasures.

Sri Brahme  maha  purane  sri yama  krutha   Vaishnavashtakam sampoornam

The octet on Vishnu composed  by Lord Yama which occurs in Brahma maha Purana comes to an end.

Lalitha Moola Manthra Kavacham

Lalitha  moola manthra   Kavacham
Translated   by

This Kavacha(Armour)  is based   on the moola manthra of  Goddess  Laitha   viz
Ka-aa-ee-la-hrim      (Vagbhava koota)
Ha –sa-ka –ha-la-hrim   (kama Raja koota)
Sa-ka –la-hrim      (Shakthi koota)
    The letters of Vagh bhava koota originate    from the Mooladhara  (baser instincts of man)  , The Kama  Raja Koota letters  . Each line  of this moola manthra is considered equivalent to  Gayathri  . Those interested may please see my introduction to Lalatha   Trishathi ( )

Asya sri laithaa kavacha stava rathna manthrasya
Ananda bhairava rishi
Amrutha viraat chandhah
sri maha tripura sundari lalithaa paraambaa devatha
ayeem beejam hreem shakthih sreem keelakam
sri lalithaamba prasaadha siddhyarthe
sri lalitha kavacha stava ratna mantra jape viniyogah
For   the gem like   prayer of the armour of Lalitha ,
The sage   is   Ananda Bhairava,
The meter  is Amrutha Virat,
The goddess addressed    is  Maha Tripura Sundari Lalitha,
The root  Ayeem,  the   strength  is  Hreem  , the nail  is   Sreem,
 For getting the blessings of   mother  Lalitha,
This  gem like   armour of mother  Lalitha   is being chanted.

ayeem - angushtabhyam namah
hreem - tarjanibhyam namah
sreem - madhymabhyam namah
sreem - anamikabhyam namah
hreem - kanishtikabhyam namah
ayeem - karathala kara prushtabhyam namah
hreem - hrudayaya namah
ayeem - sirase svaaha
sreem – sikhayey voushat
ayeem hreem sreem - kavachaya hoom
sreem hreem ayeem - nethra thrayaya voushat
hreem ayeem sreem - asthraya phat
bhurbu vassu varo mithi dhik bhandah
Ayeem salutation with the thumb  ,
Hreem   , salutation with pointer finger,
Sreem  , salutation    with middle finger,
Sreem salutation with ring finger,
Hreem salutation with little finger ,
Ayeem salutation with back of the hand,
Hreem  , salutation with the heart  ,
Ayeem   salutation with the head,
Sreem  salutation with hair on head,
Ayeem hreem sreem  Armour   hoom,
Sreem hreem ayeem  - meditate  on the three  eyes ,
Hreem ayeem    sreem  - with arrow phat,
Tie all directions with Bhur  bhuva suvar  om


Sri vidyaam paripoorna meru sikhare bindu trikone
vaagisaadhi samastha bhoota jananim munche siva
kamakshiim karunaa rasaarnava mayim kameswaraanka
kaanthaam chinmaya kamakoti nilayaam sri brahma
vidyaam bhaje
I salute the Srividya   who  exists  in the dot triangle   at the head  of the complete Meru,
Who is the mother   of Brahma   and all other beings , who bestows power  to Lord  Shiva,
Who is Kamakshi , the ocean of  mercy  , who exists  in the body  of  Lord Shiva,
Who is   the divine goddess  of Kamakoti  peeta  and is the  Brahma  Vidhya,

1.kakaarah paathu sirsham me yekaarah paathu phaalakam
eekaarah-chukshusi paathu srothre raksheth llakaarakah
Let letter “Ka”   protect my head  , let letter “Ye” protect my forehead,
Let  letter  “ee” protect my eyes , let  letter “Ilaa”  protect my   ears.

2.hreenkaarah paathu naasaagram vakthram vaaghbhava
hakaarah paathu kantam me sakaarah skanda desakam
Let letter  “hreem”  protect the tip of my nose ,
Let the  Vaagbhava  numbers   protect my  mouth,
Let letter  “ha”  protect my neck   and  letter “sa”  protect my region of shoulders.

3.kakaaro hrudyam paathu hakaaro jhataram thatha
lakaaro naabhi desanthu hrenkaarah paathu guhyakam
Let letter  “Ka”  protect my heart  , Let letter “ha”  protect my stomach,
Let letter  “la”  protect  party near belly  , Let letter  “hreem” protect my private parts.

4.kaamakuta ssadha paathu kati desam mamaivathu
sakaarah paathu choru me kakaarah paathu jaanuni

Let Kamakuta   always   protect my areas   near   waist,
Let  letter  “sa”  protect my  thighs  , Let letter “Ka”  protect  my knee,.

5.lakaarah paathu jhange me hreenkaarah paathu gulphakow
sakthi kootam sadha paathu paadou rakshathu sarvadhaa

Let  letter  “la”  protect the shanks , Let letter “Hreem”  protect  the ankle,
Let  the Sakthi Koota  always   protect   my feet.

6.moola manthra krutham chaitat kavacham yo japennarah
prathyaham niyathah prathah tasya lokaa vasam vadaah

This armour    which is built    by    the root chant of the goddess,
If chanted     as per rules in the morning , the world would become his.

                         Iti Brahma deva krutham lalitha moola manthra kavacham

Thus ends     the  armour of lalitha root chant   created by Brahma.

om ayeem hreem sreem lalithambayaye namah (salutations to  mother Lalitha)
om ayeem hreem sreem lalithambayaye namah
om ayeem hreem sreem lalithambayaye namah
om ayeem hreem sreem lalithambayaye namah
om ayeem hreem sreem lalithambayaye namah
om ayeem hreem sreem lalithambayaye namah
om ayeem hreem sreem lalithambayaye namah