Wednesday, September 16, 2009

Thulasi Stotram



Sage Pundareeka

Translated by


(This prayer is addressed to Thulasi (ocimum sanctum) called in English as the sacred Basil. She is also called Vrinda. This plant is considered to be an incarnation of the consort of Lord Vishnu. Devotees believe that if the leaves of Thulasi are offered to Lord Vishnu, he would bless us with all that we want. There are many mythological tales associated with Thulasi ( )
There is more than one mythological version relating to the origin of the Thulasi plant.
One is that Sri Lakshmi was born to Dharmadhwaja's wife Madhavi. Her parents named her Tulasi. Being beautiful and virtuous, she was married to Vishnu. Vishnu desired her to cast off her body and stay with him in spirit. Her body then became the river Gandaki. Vishnu's body become the Saaligrama stone and resided in the river. Sri Lakshmi's hair grew into a plant, become the famous Tulasi, an object of worship.
* DeceThere is also another version. Tulasi was the wife of Jalandhara, a water demon, who caused great suffering to people. Lord Vishnu had to abduct her to kill Jalandhara. Lord Vishnu then lifted the plant to higher level by placing her leaves on His head. It is also said that Vishnu abducted Tulasi to help Shiva kill the demon.

Yet another version recites that Sarasvati's curse once turned Lakshmi into a Tulasi plant and forced her to live on the earth causing Vishnu to come down from Heaven and stay near her as the Salagrama. That is why the Salagrama is to be found under the river Gandaki on the bank of which the Sal tree grows and also in the Narmada river from which many Brahmin communities migrated to South India later on. Salagrama being Bhagavan Vishnu's counterpart for Sri Lakshmi's Tulasi, this sacred stone, now considered to be an ammonite fossil, which is also eulogized in the Puranas.
There is also a story in Uthara Ramayana about a lady who was doing prayers to become the wife of Vishnu. It seems Ravana tried to molest her. The lady cursed him and jumped in the fire and became Thulasi.
This prayer is written by Sage Pundareeka who lived in Thirukdalmallai in Tamil Nadu. It seems he used to worship the Lord with lotus flowers. One day the Lord himself appeared before him in the form of a poor hungry old man. When the sage went to bring food, the old man turned in to the idol of Vishnu and all the lotus flowers he worshipped earlier was on the body of Lord Vishnu’s idol.)

Jagad dhathri namasthubhyam,
Vishoncha Priya vallabhe,
Yathro Brahmadayo deva,
Srushti sthithyantha karina. 1

Salutations to mother of the universe,
Who is the darling wife of Lord Vishnu,
And due to you only , Brahma and others,
Are engaged in creation , upkeep and destruction.

Namas thulasi Kalyani,
Namo Vishnu priye Shubhe,
Namo moksha pradhe devi,
Nama sampath pradhayike. 2

Salutations to the benevolent Thulasi,
Salutations to the holy darling of Vishnu
Salutations to goddess giving salvation,
Salutations to her who grants wealth.

THulasi pathu maam nithyam,
SArva aapthbhyobhi sarvadha,
Keerthithapi , smruthavapi,
Pavithrayathi manavam. 3

Oh Thulasi , daily protect me,
Always from all dangers,
For you make than one holy,
Who sings or thinks about you.

Namami sirasa devim ,
Thulasim vilasa thanum,
Yaam drushtwa papinor marthya,
Muchyanthe sarva kil bhishath.. 4

I prostrate with my head before the Goddess,
Who gives brightness to our body,
And seeing her , the sinful humans,
Would get rid of all sort of sins.

Thulasya rakshtham sarvam,
Jagadhedha characharam,
Ya vinihanthi paapaani,
Drushtwa ya papibhir narai. 5

Thulasi protects all,
The universe with its movable and immovable,
And when a man who is a sinner ,
Sees it , it destroys all his sins,

Nama thulasyathi tharam,
Yasyai bhadwa balim kalou,
Kalayanthi sukham sarvam,
Sthriyo Vaisya thadapare. 6

Salutations to Thulasi the great,
Who removes the bondage of Kali age,
And it blesses with a pleasant life,
To women and the merchant class.

Thulasya naparam kinchith,
Daivatham jagathi thale,
Yaya pavithratho loko,
Vishnu sangena Vaishnava. 7

There is nothing in this world,
As divine as Thulasi,
For it makes the world pure,
And blesses Vaishnavas ,
With company of Lord Vishnu.

Thulasya pallavam Vishno,
Sirasyaropitham kalou,
Aaropayathi sarvaani,
Seshayamsi vara masthake. 8

In the kali age, If thulasi lea,
Is offered to the head of Vishnu,
It is same thing as receiving,
The blessings of Vishnu on your head.

Thulasyam sakala deva,
Vasanthi sathatham yatha,
Atha stham archaye loke,
Sarvan devan samarchayeth. 9

Always in the Thulasi plant,
All gods live forever,
And so worshipping Thulasi,
Is same as worshipping all devas.

Namasthulasi sarvagne,
Purushothama Vallabhe,
Pahi maam srava paapebhyo,
Sarva sampath pradhayige, 10

Salutations to all knowing Thulasi,
Who is the consort of Lord Vishnu,
Save me from all the sins.
Oh bestower of all sort of wealth.

Ithi stotram pura geetham,
Pundareekena dheematha,
Vishnu marchayatha nithyam,
Shobhanai thulai dalai. 11.

This prayer was composed,
By Pundareeka the able one,
Who worshipped lord Vishnu daily,
By the divine leaf of Thulasi.

Thulasi , sri mahalakshmi,
Vidhya avidhya , yasaswini,
Dharmya dharmanana Devi,
Deva deva mana Priya. 12

Oh Thulasi, Oh Mahalakshmi,
Oh wisdom, Oh ignorance , Oh famous one,
Oh Charity, oh Goddess , Oh she Who makes us give,
The daring of the mind of Lord Vishnu.

Lakshmi , Priya sakhi devi,
Dhyou bhoomir chala achala,
Shodasaithani namani,
Thulasya keerthayan nara. 13

Oh Mahalakshmi, Oh goddess who is a dear friend,
Oh Goddess , she who is in the mind,
Oh earth, oh movable one, Oh immovable one,
If these sixteen names are sung by men

Labhathe sutharaam bhakthim,
Anthe Vishnu padam Labeth,
Thulasi , bhhor maha Lakshmi,
Padmini , sri hari Priya. 14

They get incomparable devotion.
And at the end reach the place of Vishnu,
Oh Thulasi, Oh earth, Oh Maha Lakshmi,
Oh goddess of lotus , oh Darling of Vishnu

Thulasi , Sri Sakhi , Shubhe,
Papa Harini, punyadhe ,
Namasthe naradanuthe,
Narayana mana priye. 15

Oh Thulasi, Oh friend of Lakshmi , Oh holy one.
Oh remover of sins , Oh one who blesses with divinity,
Salutations to you who was sung by sage Narada,
Oh darling of the mind of Lord Vishnu.

Ithi Pundareeka krutham Thulasi stotram sampoornam

Thus the Tulasi Stotram composed by Sri Pundarika

Ramanarayana Sthuthi (Malayalam)

Rama Narayana Sthuthi

Translated by


(This simple musical prayer gives in brief the entire story of Ramayanam. It is extremely popular in Kerala, as it can be effortlessly memorized and sung while attending to our jobs. I do not know the author of this great work.)

Athyanthamaylla aapathu asuraral,
Nithyam muzhuthu kazhivillanju ,
Shakthanayi vannu pirannu Dasaradha-,
Puthranaam Sri Ramanarayana. 1

Due to the great dangers created by Asuras,
Grew daily and since there was no other go,
You were born as the very strong son.
To Lord Dasaratha, Oh Ramanarayana.

Anandathodu angu anujanmarum thanum,
Vanor puriyil vasikkum kaalam,
Dheenathayodu oru mamuni than chollal,
Poyu oru Sri Ramanarayana. 2

When with happiness and joy, you and your brothers,
Were living in the great town,
Due to the pathetic words of a great sage,
You left there, Oh Ramanarayana.

Ishtathil mamuni than chollal pogumbol,
Dushtayam thadaye hanichu ,
Mutti kidannoru yagathe rakshicha,
Sishtanaam Sri Ramanarayana. 3

When you were going happily as per the words of great sage,
You killed Thadaga who was extremely bad,
And saved a Yaga which was blocked,
Oh Very disciplined Lord Ramanarayana.

Eedatha kallaam Ahalyukku mokshavum ,
Thane koduthu , mithila pukku,
Kedatha villu murichu, kalyanavum ,
Goshicha Sri Ramanarayana. 4

Salvation to Ahalya , the incomparable stone,
You gave and went to Mithila,
Broke the bow which was sturdy and celebrated,
Your marriage , Oh Lord Sri Ramanarayana.

Ulkanivodangu Ayodhyakku pogumbol,
Thakkalethi parasu Raman ,
Trukkayil thannoru villum sarangalum,
Kai konda Sri Ramanarayana. 5

When you were returning to Ayodhya with happiness,
At that opportune time reached , Lord Parasurama,
And you took in to your hands the bow,
And arrows given by him, Oh Lord Ramanarayana.

OOzhiye palichu kolvan abhishekam,
Parathe cheyvan thudangumappol,
Mathru vachanathe kettu, vanathinnu ,
Poyoru , Sri Ramanarayana. 6

When you were about to be crowned,
So that you can look after the earth,
Obeying the words of your mother,
You went to forest, Oh Lord Ramanarayana.

Yen moolam yen makkal poyee vanathinnu,
Yennu ninach maricha achande,
Karmangalellam vanathingal cheythoru,
Nirmalan, Sri Ramanarayana. 7

When your father died thinking that,
His sons went to forest because of him
You performed the death rituals in forest,
Oh pure one, Oh Lord Ramanarayana.

Yelpan avakasamundakki Lakshmanan,
Soorpanaka mula chedichappol,
Thalparyahodu vanna Kharadhiye ,
Tholpicha , Sri Ramanarayana. 8

When Lakshmana arranged well,
And cut off the breasts of Surpanaka,
You defeated Khara and other Rakshasas,
Who came interested, Oh Lord Ramanarayana.

Irando ranana kkalam Seethaye,
Poyyayi kavarnnoru asura veeran
Payyave pogumbol , sugreeva skhyavum,
Cheythoru , Sri Ramanarayana. 9

During the time when the ten headed one ,
Abducted Sita telling a lie,
And when you were going , you signed,
A treaty with Sugreeva, Oh Lord Ramanarayana.

Othavannam thane Baaliyeyum konnu,
Puthanayitu chira kadannu,
Pathu thalayoneyum padayum konor,
Uthaman, Sri Ramanarayana. 10

You then killed Bali in the only way possible,
Built a new bridge and crossed,
And killed the ten headed one,
And his army, Oh Lord Ramanarayana.

Oro nisachara veeranmare konnu,
Paridathingal shubham varuthi,
Nere malar mathe veendingayodhyakku,
Ponnoru, Sri Ramanarayana. 11

After killing several asuras in different places,
You brought good to the world,
And again brought Sita back,
To Ayodhya, Oh Lord Ramanarayana.

Au vana vasam kazhinju puri pukku,
Youvanathode abhishekamathu,
DAivatha mullil ullorkale Rakshichu,
Ner vazhi , Sri Ramanarayana. 12

After the stay in forest, you came back,
To the town and was crowned in your youth as a king,
And took care of all those who were straight,
And god in their mind, Oh Lord Ramanarayana

Chol konda Sri raman Vanirunnu,
Ikkadha padumbol , pal kadal varnande,
Thrukkzal cheruvor , Narayana. 13

During that time that famous Lord Rama,
Lived for ten thousand years ,
And when I sing the story now,
I would merge with the flute ,
Of the one with colour of ocean of milk, Narayana.

Narayana, mathsya koorma Varahamaam,
Narasimhakruthe Rama Rama,
Sri Krishna Rama Bala bhadra Krushnanaam,
Narayana Gadgi Rama hare. 14

Oh Narayana who took the form of Fish,
Tortoise, Boar and the man lion, Parasurama,
Rama, Krishna Bala Rama and then Gadgi,
Oh Rama, Rama, Krishna , Hari.

Narayana Hare, Narayana Hare ,
Narayana Rama Narayana.

Saturday, September 5, 2009


(The octet on different forms of Bhairava of Varanasi)

Translated by


Bhairava is a fierce deity and is the guardian of the city of Varanasi. His origin is interesting. It seems Once Lord Brahma got very proud and neglected God Shiva. Lord shiva burnt with anger and his fierce anger reframed itself in to Lord Bhairava, who immediately went to Lord Brahma’s place and pinched of one of the heads of Lord Brahma (Those times he had five heads). This was a Brahmahathi sin and the head got attached to the hand of Lord Bhairava. He was advised to go to Varanasi and worship Goddess Annapurneswari to get rid of the sin. . He did so and as a result the head of Brahma got detached. Lord Shiva then appointed him to guard the holy city of Varanasi. He sits there in several forms. This octet addresses him first in his principal form of Kshehthrapala (guardian of the temple) and then to the eight different forms located in different places of Varanasi. These temples are located in Varanasi at:-

Kshethrapala Bhairava Or Dwara Bhairava-Kasi Viswanath temple
Ruru Bhairava - Hanuman Ghat
Chanda Bhairava - Durga Kund
Asitanga Bhairava - Amrit Kund
Kapala Bhairava or Lat Bhairav
Krodha Bhairava - Kamaccha
Unmatta Bhairava - Bhimchandi Sadak
Samhara Bhairava - Trilochanganj
Bhishana Bhairava or Bhut Bhairav

Bhairava is worshipped as an incarnation of Lord Shiva by some Shaivaites and as his aid by majority of them. There was a time when the fierce branch of Shaivism known as Kapaliakas considered him as their deity. But this sect has almost disappeared.

In this stotra , the ashta Bhairavas are related to the ashta Mathas(mothers) viz Brahmani, Maheswari, Vaishnavi, Varahi, Kaumari, Indri , Narasimhi and Chamundi
In South India , it is a normal practice to take permission of Lord Bhairava (whose temple would be outside the main temple) before going to see Lord Shiva.
It is believed that if we worship Lord Bhairava , he would protect our assets and wealth. It is a practice to light a pepper lamp before him and offer him curd rice on Krishna Paksha Ashtami days.

Kshethra Pala Bhairava
(Bhairava who is the guard of earth)

Raktha jwalaa Jada dharam , sasi dharan, Rakthanga thejo mayam,
Dakka Shoola kapala pasa gadha dharam Bhairavam,
Nirvanam Gathavahanam Trinayanamcha Ananda kolahalam,
Vande bhootha pisacha natha vadukam Kshethrasya palam Shubham. 1

I salute the leader of ghosts and Ghouls , Lord Bhairava,
Who wears the red flame as his matted hair,
Who wears the moon , who shines in red colour,
Who holds a drum , spear , skull , rope and mace in his hands,
Who is nude , who rides on a dog , who has three eyes,
Who is always happy and exuberant and is the guard of the temple.

Asithanga Bhairava
(Bhairava who has a dark body)

Trinethram , varadam shantham , munda mala bhooshitham,
Swetha varnam , krupa murthim , Bhairavam Kundalojjwalam,
Gada kapala samyuktham , kumarsya digambaram,,
Banam pathrancha sankham cha Aksha maalaam kundalam,
Naga Yagnopaveetham cha dharinam suvibhooshitham,
Brahmani shakthi sahitham , hamsaroodam suroopinam,
SArvabheeshta dharam nithyam asithangam Bhajamyaham. 2

I pray the dark Bhairava who fulfills all desires,
Who is forever, who has three eyes , who blesses and is peaceful,
Who wears a skull garland , who is white , who is the Lord of mercy,
Who shines in his ear globes, who holds mace and the skull,
Who is young and nude , who holds arrow, vessel, conch , bead chain and ear globes,
Who wears snake as sacred thread , who is well ornamented,
Who is with Goddess Brahmani , rides on a swan and is good to look at.

Krodha Bhairava
(Bhairava who is angry)

Trinethram , varadam , santham , kumarancha digambaram,
Gadam shankam cha Chakrancha pada pathrancha dharinam,
Lakshmyacha sahitham vame garudasana susthitham,
Neela varnam maha devam Vande Sri Kroda Bhairavam. 3

I salute the angry Bhairava , who is blue and a great God,
Who has three eyes , blesses, peaceful , young and nude,
Who is armed with mace , conch , wheel , rope and a vessel,
Who is near Goddess Lakshmi riding on Garuda the eagle.

Unmatha Bhairava
(Bhairava who is mad)

Trinethram , varadam , santham , kumarancha digambaram,
Hema Varnam , maha devam , hastha vahana susthitham,
Gadgam, kapalam , musalam , dathantham , kedagam thadha,
Varahi shakthi sahitham Vande Unmatha Bhairavam. 4

I salute that mad Bhairava who is power called Varahi,
Who has three eyes , blesses, peaceful , young and nude,
Who is of golden colour , great God and rides on a swan,
And who holds sword , skull , Pestle and also the shield.

Ruru Bhairava
(Bhairava who is the teacher)

Trinethram , varadam , santham , kumarancha digambaram,
Dangam krisna mrugam pathram bibranam chakru panakam,
Maheswaryayudham devam vrusharoodam smitha vahanam,
Shudha sphatikam sankaram , namami Ruru Bhairavam. 5

I salute the Bhairava with the deer ,who is like pure crystal and a destroyer,
Who has three eyes , blesses, peaceful , young and nude,
Who holds a hatchet, deer, drinking goblet and a sword in his hands,
Who has the armed Maheswari by his side and who is smiling and rides on a bull.

Kapala Bhairava
(Bhairava of the Skull)

Trinethram , varadam , santham , kumarancha digambaram,
Pasam , Vajram , thadha Gadgam pana pathranch dharinam,
Indrani shakthi sahitham Gaja vahana susthitham,
Kapala Bhairavam Vande padma ragha prabham Shubham. 6

I salute the Bhairava of the skull, who has a shining body ,
Who has three eyes , blesses, peaceful , young and nude,
Who holds rope, Vajrayudha, Sword and Drinking Goblet,
Who has with him Indrani Shakthi , is being well praised and rides on an elephant.

Chanda Bhairava
(Fierce Bhairava)

Trinethram , varadam , santham , kumarancha digambaram,
Dhanur banancha bhibranam , Gadgam Pathram Thadaiva cha,
Koumari shakthi sahitham , Shikihi vahana sthitham,
Gowri varnayudham DEvam Vande Sri Chanda Bhairavam. 7

I salute the Chanda Bhairava who is pure white in colour,
Who has three eyes , blesses, peaceful , young and nude,
Who holds rope, Vajrayudha, Sword and Drinking Goblet,
Who has with him Kaumari Shakthi and rides on a peacock.

Bheeshana Bhairava
The fearful Bhairava

Trinethram , varadam , santham , kumarancha digambaram,
Gadgam soolam Kapalancha darinam musalam thadha,
Chamunda shakthi sahitham pretha vahana susthitham,
Raktha varnam maha devam Vabde Bheeshana Bhairavam,. 8

I salute the fearful Bhairava who is a great God of blood red colour,
Who has three eyes , blesses, peaceful , young and nude,
Who holds sword , trident , skull and pestle in his hand,
Who has with him Chamunda Shakthi and rides on a corpse.

Samhara Bhairavam
Bhairava the destroyer

Dasa bhahum trinethram cha sarpa yagnopaveethinm,
Damishtra karala vadanam ashtaiswarya pradhayakam,
Digambaram kumarancha simha vahana samsthitham,
Soolam damarugam shankam , gadam chakrancha darinam,
Gadgam pathram cha Gadwangam pasa mangusa meva cha,
Ugra roopam madonmathamam bada vaalai,
Chandika shakthi sahitham dyayeth samhara Bhairavam. 9

I meditate on Bhairava the destroyer who is with Chandika Shakthi,
Who has ten hands, three eyes and snake as sacred thread,
Who has protruding teeth , fearful look and grants eight type of wealth,
Who is nude, a youth and rides on a lion,
Who holds trident , drum , conch , mace and wheel in his hands,
Who holds sword , vessel , Gadwangam, rope and goad.
And who has fearful looks , wears skull garland and greatly exuberant.

Tuesday, September 1, 2009

SAmkshepa Dharma Sasthram-Thithi nirnaya dharma prakaranam

Thithi nirnaya Prakaranam 2
(Fixing of Suitable Thithi) 2
I.Kala niroopanam 2
(fixing of time) 2
II. Nimishadhi Lakshanam 2
The form of Nimisha and other things 2
III. Thithi swaroopa 3
The nature of thithi 3
IV. Khanda thithi swaroopa 3
The nature of Khanda Thithis 3
V. Thithinam veda vichara 3
Examination of veda regarding thithis 3
VI. Prathama thithi nirnaya 4
The description of Prathama thithi 4
VII, Yekabhaktha nirnaya 5
One time food determination 5
VIII. Naktha Vrutha nirnaya 5
Determination of of the night only food practice 5
IX. Dwitheeya thithi nirnaya 6
Estimate of the Dwitheeya thithi 6
X .Thrutheeya nirnaya 6
Determination of Thrutheeya thithi 6
XI. Chathurthi Nirnaya 7
Determination of Chathurthi thithi 7
XII. Panchami nirnaya 7
Determination of Panchami Thithi 7
XIII. Sashti nirnaya 7
Determination of Sashti thithi 7
XIV. Sapthami nirnaya 7
Determination of Sapthami 7
XV. Ashtami nirnaya 8
Determination of Ashtami 8
XVI. Sri Krishna Janmashtami nirnaya 8
Determination of Lord Krishna?s birthday. 8
XVII. Sri Rama Navami nirnaya 9
Determination of Rama Navami 9
XVIII. Dasavathara kala nirnaya 9
Determination of the time of birth of the ten incarnations 9
IXX . Dasami nirnaya 10
Determination of Dasami 10
XX. Ekadasi nirnaya 10
Determination of Ekadasi 10
XXI. Dwadasi nirnaya 11
Determination of Dwadasi 11
XXII. Thryodasi nirnaya 12
Determination of Thryodasi 12
XXIII. Chaturdasi nirnaya. 12
Determination of Chaturdasi 12
XXIV. Shiva Rathri nirnaya 12
Determination of Shiva Rathri 12
XXV. Panchadasi nirnaya 13
Determination of Panchadasi 13

Thithi nirnaya Prakaranam
(Fixing of Suitable Thithi)

Translated by


(Thithi, the nature of moon?s crescent is important in fixing the time for rituals as well as festivities. But thithis do rarely start with sun rise and end with next day?s sun rise. So almost every day is the mixture of thithis.(Khanda thithi) . This chapter tells us the rules for fixing the rules for the time of different rituals based on Khanda thithis)

I.Kala niroopanam
(fixing of time)
Now the form and shape of Kala is being told

Being a part of the main rituals , Thithi(moon?s crescent) , Vara(Day)and Nakshatra (Star) become the cause for doing sins and good deeds. Independently they do not have any effect.

II. Nimishadhi Lakshanam
The form of Nimisha and other things

The time taken for one blink is a Nimisham. Two nimishas make one Triti. Two Tritis make one lava. Two lavas are one Kshana. Ten Kshanas are one Kashta. Thirty Kashtas make one kala. Thirty kalas make one Muhurtha. Thirty Muhurthas are a day and a night(24 hours).

III. Thithi swaroopa
The nature of thithi

The merging of Sun and Moon is called Amavasya. When they are furthest apart it is called Poornima. Chandra has 15 crescents. Entry of each crescent of the moon in to the sun are the thithis of Krishna Paksha. The coming out of these crescents after they fully enter the sun are the Thithis of Shukla paksha,

IV. Khanda thithi swaroopa
The nature of Khanda Thithis

Those Thithis which are spread from one sun rise to next day sun rise are called Shudha(clean) thithis. They get an adjective of ?Shudha?. Others are called Khanda thithis.

According to Dharma and Adharma, Thithis are classified in to three. If this are equal it is called Kharava, if it increases Dharpa and if it decreases it is called Himsra.

2.Vrudha Gargya
Depending on the time , the rituals told in the shastras have to be observed or not observed when Shastras tell that it should not be observed. Those thithis which are good for rituals are great. It is sufficient if we know those times where performance are banned. That is there is no examination of the greatness of such thithis. In Shudha and Complete Thithis actions can be performed but only in Khanda Thithis , this needs examination. So we shall examine about Khanda thithis.

V. Thithinam veda vichara
Examination of veda regarding thithis

Veda is the relation of one thithi with the next thithi . There are of two types like Amavasya and Prathama and Prathama and Dwitheeya.

If a thithi does not have relation with the next thithi it is called Shudha Thithi. If it has relation , it is called vidha thithi. Even this is of two types. If the relation is with in the first three muhurthas (6 nazhikas-144 minutes) , it is one type of vidha thithi. And another type has relation with three muhurthas prior to sun set in the next day. That is that Prathama which has relation with Amavasya during sun rise is called Prathama vidha and one which has relation with Dwitheeya on the next day sun set is also called vidha .Any relation with less than 6 muhurthas is not considered as Vidha. These are respectively called Poorva Vidha thithi and Uthara Vidha thithi.

VI. Prathama thithi nirnaya
The description of Prathama thithi

In Shukla Paksha that Prathama which has Vidha with amavasya and in Krishna Paksha that Prathama which has Vidha with Dwitheeya are suitable for fasting. Shukla Prathama with Poorva vidha is better. But in the Aparahna , Prathama relation should be there. If this is not available , Prathama relation should be available in Sayahna, This type of Shukla Prathama is suitable for fasting.
The day time is divided in to five parts each with 6 Nazhigai. These are respectively called Pratha, Sangava, Madyahna, Aparahna and Sayahna. This division is considered important in shastras.
The day can be divided in to two parts, Poorvahnna and Aparahna or three parts Poorvahnna, Madyahna and Aparahna or four parts Poorvahnna, Madyahna, Aparahna and Sayahna or five parts Pratha, Poorvahnna, Madyahna, Aparahna and Sayahna. The division in to five is considered as more appropriate.

That thithi in which sun set takes place is very suitable for Dhana (charity), Parayana (reading scriptures) and Upavasa (fasting). That thithi should not be less than three muhurthas. It could spread more than three muhurthas. That type of Thithi only is suitable for rituals.

If a thithi is spread during sun set, it should be spread for at least three muhurthas. Elders say that only such complete thithis are suitable for holy activities.

If we observe fast according to thithi or Nakshatra , at the end of the thithi and Nakshatra we should do Parana (eat/drink something i.e beak our fast ) If we do not that that Vrutha is not complete. This is applicable to those thithis which have Veda. For Shudha thithis this would not happen. For Sivarathri Vrutha or Sravana Vrutha the Parana is at the end of the thithi and not Nakshatra(Sravana in this case)
Where Parana is prescribed at the end of Thithi and Nakshatra and Thithi are Nakshatra are beyond three Yamas at night, the Parana can be performed in the morning after we get up.
If we are not able to observe in the Poorva Veda thithi , fast can be performed in Uthara Veda thithi also.
Depending on the kala (duration) prescribed for the Vrutha , it has to be observed depending on what thithi pervades during that time.

VII, Yekabhaktha nirnaya
One time food determination

If we are not able to observe complete fast , yekabhakth ( taking meals once) can be observed. This consists of taking food only once. This can be observed after half of the day time. 15 to 18 Nazhigai( Nazhigai-24 minutes) after that is the most important time. After that the time before sun set is the Gowna period.

In Yekabhaktha as well as in worship of gods and fasts , the thithi which spreads in the Madyahna is mentioned. This is a general rule
In the thithi spread over Madyahna there are six types:-
1. Having relation with Madyahna only in the previous day 2. Having relation with Madyahna only in the second day 3. Having relation with Madyahna during both days 4.Having no relation with Madyahna on both days 5. Having little relation with Madyahna on both the days. 6.Having relation on both days but strong on one day and weak on the other day.
Understand that in this in case of the first two there is relation with Madyahna. In the case of third since Poorva Vidha is special and the spread in the Gowna kala is more and the thithi in the previous day only is recognized . In the fourth case also the relation in the previous day is important and is considered more suitable for rituals. In the fifth case , though there is equal relationship with Madyahna , Poorva vidha(previous day) is considered as better. In the sixth case the day when spread in to Madyahna is more is considered. Yekabhaktha has to be observed taking these in to consideration. This is also the rule for worship as well as fast.

VIII. Naktha Vrutha nirnaya
Determination of of the night only food practice

1.Varaha Purana
In the Marga seersha month in the Shukla Paksha Prathama , we have to observe Naktha Vrutha (fast in the day time and take food at night) and Lord Vishnu worshipped

2.Kala Darsa
In Naktha Vrutha, the thithi should be there for three muhurthas(6 nazhigas of 24 minutes) before sun set and also three muhurthas of thithi after sun set. The thithi before sun set which goes in to Sayamkala is the Gowna period. The thithi which is spread after sun set is considered more important. The thithi which spreads over Pradosha is specially good for Naktha Vrutha .
Sanyasis and widows should not take food at night. So the thithi which is spread over Gowna period is suitable for them. In case of Naktha Vrutha , family people can take food at night. So for them the thithi , which is spread over Pradosha is more suitable for them.(Naktha-night, Pradosha- the beginning of night)

Pradosha is the period of three muhurthas after sun set. Naktha Vrutha should be observed then. In this case also the spread of the thithi is in 6 ways and should be taken in to consideration.

If Thithi does not spread in to Pradosha, Naktha Vrutha can be observed in Sayamkala. That is the period when your shadow is twice your size and is suitable for Naktha. In Naktha Vrutha, if Sunday is involved then even a Grahastha should not take food. He should observe it in day time.
On Sunday, Amavasya and Pournami, we should not take food at night. In case of Chaturdasi and Ashtami , we should not take food during day time.
When the period of ban for taking food is over, then we can take food. In the Parva , food should not be taken at night. In case of eclipse, after eclipse is over, only you can take food. In the night if there is an eclipse, we should not take food at night.

5,Vrudha Yagnavalkya
For Snana (holy bath) and Dhana (ritual charity) the Uthara vidha period should be chosen.

IX. Dwitheeya thithi nirnaya
Estimate of the Dwitheeya thithi

Ekadasi, Ashtami , Sashti, Dwitheeya , Chaturdasi , Thryodasi and Amavasya are Para vidha and are suitable for fasting .

X .Thrutheeya nirnaya
Determination of Thrutheeya thithi

Ramba Vrutha should be observed on Thrutheeya. That is to be observed in the Poorva vidha period. Except for this Vrutha, in case of all other Vruthas( in case of Dwitheeya ) should be observed in Para Vidha time.

XI. Chathurthi Nirnaya
Determination of Chathurthi thithi

The Ganapathi Vrutha should be observed when Chathurthi is mixed with Thrutheeya. But Chathurthi should be in the after noon .If it is not there but if there is Chathurthi in the Madyahna of the next day, leave out Chathurthi with Thrutheeya and observe it on the next day .For other festivals other than Chathurthi , Chathurthi mixed with Panchami is considered as better.

XII. Panchami nirnaya
Determination of Panchami Thithi

Panchami is one with Poorva vidha. It is considered as propitious for rituals concerning devas and manes. What is indicated is the Panchami mixed with Chathurthi.

XIII. Sashti nirnaya
Determination of Sashti thithi

This thithi is Para vidha, It is good fore fasting. But in case of Skanda sashti , Poorva Vidha is considered as superior.

Vasistha says that in case of Krishnashtami, Skanda Sashti , Shiva Rathri and Chathurthi , Poorva Vidha is appropriate for observation.

XIV. Sapthami nirnaya
Determination of Sapthami

Kala nirnaya
In all Vruthas where Sapthami is involved it is Poorva vidha. If this is not properly available, one can use the Sapthami of Para vidha.

XV. Ashtami nirnaya
Determination of Ashtami

Shukla Paksha Ashtami and Shukla Chaturdasi are more suitable as Para Vidha. But the Ashtami in the Krishna paksha is observed in Poorva vidha.

XVI. Sri Krishna Janmashtami nirnaya
Determination of Lord Krishna?s birthday.

Krishna Janmashtami is very much different from Sri Jayanthi Vrutha. For Janmashtami thithi is more important and for Sri Jayanthi Rohini star is more important.
In the Sravana Krishna Paksha Ashtami , Janmashtami has to be observed. If this is not observed , the person will be born as Rakshasa.
If in the Sravana month Krishnashtami. , Rohini star also comes, then it is called Sri Jayanthi.. It is superior.

1.Vasishta Samhitha
If Rohini and Ashtami occur together in Sravana or Bhadrapada month, it is called as Jayanthi. If it occurs in Sravana month it is considered as special. That which occurs in Bhadrapada month is classified as Gowna.


Here Sravana or Bhadra pada denotes Avani(Chinga) month InPurattasi (kanya month) or Sravana in Aadi (karkidaka) should not be considered. This is concerning Krishnashtami Jayanthi festival.
The Jayanthi in Ashtami can come in Sravana or Bhadrapada.,. That is it should come in the month of Avani (Chingam). If this is not available Ashtami in Sravana month can be used for Janmashtami Vrutha. This rule is for Smarthas. Srivaishnavas determine it predominantly based on the Rohini star.

Here the time of the birth of Krishna is being told.. When sun was in Simha rasi (that is in Avani (chingam)), when the sky is completely covered by clouds in the Bhadrapada Ashtami , in the midnight, when moon was about to rise, in the last pada of Rohini, in Wednesday, in Vrushabha Lagna, in the harshana yoga and in Gownava karana, I was born as the son of Vasudeva and Devaki-So told Krishna to Brahma.

It is opined that if Ashtami Rohini comes in the month of Sravana on a Wednesday or .
Monday, it is suitable for observing Vrutha of Janmashtami.
The difference of month depends on the Kalpa difference. But Rohini should be there in the midnight.
The Ashtami Rohini in the midnight has to be considered as the holy time. That is the time between the fifteenth and sixteenth Nazhigai at night.. If Rohini does not occur there at all, then the presence of Ashtami should be taken in to consideration. For Janmashtami darkness is considered as the holy time.
The Ashtami at midnight is a holy time. In this place Poorva Vidha is not considered.
If any Ashtami begins after midnight and ends before next midnight , then that Ashtami has relation with both the nights. So the Ashtami has to be celebrated next day only. This is because when we chant Sankalpa Mantra Ashtami should be there. This Janmashtami has to be celebrated by every one. This is considered as Nithyam like Sandhya vandana.
We have to observe fast during Janmashtami . If Ashtami is remaining in the next day Parana (breaking of fast) should not be done on that day till Ashtami thithi is over.

XVII. Sri Rama Navami nirnaya
Determination of Rama Navami

If in the Chitra month Shukla paksha Navami is with Punarvasu star, that is a very holy time. If Punarvasu is not there during that time , Rama Navami should be observed in the Shudha Navami during Madyahna. Here also fast should be observed.
The holy time of Sri Rama Navami is superior to even one crores of solar eclipses. So any ritual done aimed at Rama , if done with devotion, would give great strength. Worship of Rama, reading the story of Rama?s birth, fast, waking up at night , and Tharpana aimed at the manes could be done. All good things including getting of salvation will then happen. This also is a nithya ritual and should definitely be observed. If not observed it will lead to sin.

XVIII. Dasavathara kala nirnaya
Determination of the time of birth of the ten incarnations

1.Mathsya incarnation Chaithra Krishna Thryodasi
2.Koorma incarnation- Jyeshta Krishna Dwadasi
3.Varaha incarnation Chaithra Krishna Panchami
4.Narasimha incarnation Vaishaka Shudha Chathurthi with Swathi star at dusk
5.Vamana incarnation Bhadrapada Shukla Dwadasi in Sravana star
6. Parasurama incarnation Marga seersha Krishna Dwitheeya
7. Rama incarnation Chaithra Shudha Navami in Punarvasu star
8.Balarama incarnation Vaishaka shudha Thrutheeya
9.Krishna incarnation Sravana Krishnashtami in Rohini star
10. Kalki incarnation Bhadrapada Shukla Dwitheeya

Knowing the dates of these ten incarnations and performing as much holy deeds as possible on such days would give great strength. That is slight good deeds would lead to results one crore times.

IXX . Dasami nirnaya
Determination of Dasami

Dasami Thithi spreading in sun rise time in the Shukla Paksha is very holy. Dasami at Sun set in Krishna Paksha is holy. Look for these before following rituals.

XX. Ekadasi nirnaya
Determination of Ekadasi

1.Sanath kumara Samhitha
Fast should be observed in Ekadasi of Shukla as well as in Krishna Paksha.

2.Garuda Purana
Fast should definitely observed in Ekadasi of Krishna and Shukla Paksha. This is also classified as Nithyam(essential). That is when we are alive , we should not disregard Ekadasi.

3.Vishnu Rahasya
If we aim at going to the world of Vishnu and want to lead a pleasant life with plenty of wealth, observe fast during both Ekadasi.

4.Sanath Kumara
Ekadasi fast should never be forsaken. There are redemptive procedures for one drinking alcoholic drinks but there is no redemption for not observing Ekadasi and so Ekadasi should definitely be observed. If we leave it we will get sin. There is no solution for it.
From these we understand that it is Kamyam(desirable) , that is it can be observed for our personal welfare. If we have all we want and because of that not observe Ekadasi, we will get sin. So it is Nithyam. So Ekadasi is classified as Nithya Kamyam.
We would now tell how Smarthas should determine the Ekadasi fast day.
It is said that an Ekadasi day with Dasami on the same day is not suitable for fast,. In this aspect Vaishnavas and Smarthas differ .Vaishnavas are said to be those who have Deeksha in their Pancha Rathra Agama.

We are telling the meaning as given by Vaidyanatha Deekshithiyam. The four Nazhigai (24 minutes each) before sun rise is called Arunodaya time. Dasami in the beginning of Arunodaya time is called Veda ,if it is for half a Nazhigai (12 minutes) . If the relation is one Nazhigai (24 minutes) then it is called Adhiveda. If the relation extends up to the sun rise it is called Maha Veda. Even if there is a few seconds of Dasami left during sun rise it is sufficient. This is called Udaya veda.
If related with Dasami, Ekadasi is there during sun rise Sri Vaishnavas do not fast or worship during that day as they consider it unsuitable. So if during sunrise if there is Dasami , understand that it is not suitable for Smarthas.

If during sunrise, Ekadasi is seen with relation to Dasami , Smarthas should not observe Ekadasi on that day. If observed the good effect earned in hundreds of birth would be lost.

7.Vishnu Rahasya
During breaking of fast (Parana) Dwadasi should be there at least for a few seconds. If it is no there, then we can observe Ekadasi with Dasami Veda. This is applicable to smarthas.
If Ekadasi is there fully Dwadasi increases and is available in the next day also it is called Vanjuli Ekadasi. In such cases you have to leave Ekadasi on that day , observe fast on Dwadasi and break the fast next day. Widows and Sanyasis should not observe such Ekadasi. For them even if Dwadasi is not there for breaking the fast, it does not matter.
A householder if he observes complete fast on Shukla Paksha Ekadasi, it is desirable. But in case of Krishna Paksha Ekadasi, he need not observe complete fast but take some Tiffin/fruits .No fast should be observed on Sundays, Sankramana (first of a month) , Krishna Ekadasi , Vyatheepada and Sradha days .You can take palahara once during such days.
The Ashada Shukla Ekadasi is called Sayahna Ekadasi and Kruthika Shukla Ekadasi is called prabodhini Ekadasi. The householder should necessarily observe fast in the Krishna Paksha Ekadasi coming in between them. It indicates that complete fast need not be observed in other Krishna Paksha Ekadasi.

XXI. Dwadasi nirnaya
Determination of Dwadasi

If either Krishna Dwadasi or Shukla Dwadasi is related to Sravana Nakshatra, then you have to observe fast on that Dwadasi day also and break the fast only on Thryodasi day If your health does not permit fasting for two days, observe partial fast on Ekadasi day and complete fast on the Sravana Dwadasi day.
The last 4 muhurthas of Ekadasi and the first 4 muhurthas of Dwadasi (total 16 Nazhigai) is called Harivasaram. So breaking of fast should not be done in the beginning of Dwadasi.

In case only very less Dwadasi is left, because it is very important to take meals before the end of Dwadasi, Sandhya vandana, Madhyahnikam, Brahma Yagna, Oupasana, Worship and Vaiswa devam can be begun at dawn and completed early.

If it is very difficult to break the fast (Parana) due to less of Dwadasi, think of God and take a sip of water and break the fast. Meals can be taken later. But for no reason we should ignore breaking of fast in Dwadasi.

XXII. Thryodasi nirnaya
Determination of Thryodasi

For the Vruthas to be observed in Shukla Thryodasi, Poorva vidha is supposed to be better. But in case of Krishna Thryodasi , Para vidha is supposed to be better.

XXIII. Chaturdasi nirnaya.
Determination of Chaturdasi

Lord Narasimha was born on a Chaturdasi at dusk. So the Vaisaka Shukla Chaturdasi which extends to night is superior. In the Shukla Chaturdasi of Sravana month Anantha Vrutha is being observed. That Chaturdasi should have connection with sun rise. So The Anantha Chaturdasi which is related to Pournami (full moon) is superior.

XXIV. Shiva Rathri nirnaya
Determination of Shiva Rathri

The night of the Krishna paksha Chaturdasi of the Magha month is called Shiva rathri. This is liked by Lord Shiva. That is why it is called Shiva Rathri.
On that night Lord Shiva himself is fully present in all the Shiva lingas. In permanently fixed Lingas as well as in those which are portable , even without Avahana, Lord Shiva is present on that day. So the night of Magha Krishna Paksha Shiva Rathri is called Shiva Priya Rathri(night dear to Shiva).

Sivarathri is mentioned in Kamika Sasthra.Magha Krishna paksha night is called Shiva Rathri. Any good deed done during this day would give easy benefits.
If on Magha Krishna Paksha , if Chaturdasi is fully there, without doubt Shiva Rathri should be observed on that day .If partial thithi comes Thryodasi is not desirable but Chaturdasi is. If Chaturdasi is there after sun set, it is considered as propitious.

3.Ishana Samhitha
The shiva Rathri time is determined here. Chaturdasi should be there at night. The time between 15th and 16th Nazhigai is defined as night. Chaturdasi should be there at that time. If during that time for two consecutive days Chaturdasi is there , then that day when it extends up to Pradosha is taken as Shiva Rathri.. It is impossible for this to happen on both days.

On Shiva Rathri day, fast and spending awake the day and night as well as special poojas on Linga during the four Yamas should be done. The people who observe Shiva Rathri this way, would lead a life without any wants and reach the heaven of Lord Shiva. So Shiva Rathri is also classified as Nithya Kamyam.

XXV. Panchadasi nirnaya
Determination of Panchadasi

In case of both Amavasya(new moon) and Pournavasya (full moon) Para Vidha is desirable. But savithri Vrutha should be observed in Chaturdasi Poornima or Amavasya days. If any ritual has to be observed depending on star, in the star which is spread during sun rise , we can take bath and give alms. Fast should be observed during those stars which are spread till night.

Thus ends the chapter on Thithi determination in Samkshepa Dharma Sasthra.

SAnkshepa Dharma Sathre Sankeerna Vishaya

Samkshepa Dharma Shasthre Sankeerna Vishaya

Appendix to topics dealt in Samkshepa Dharma Shastra

Translated by


Sanath Kumara said
In this very horrible Kali age , the path of Vedas is neglected and the path of the Barbarians is being adopted. Since the mind of Brahmins and others is not pure , there would be no results for the rituals performed by them. So what is the path fot attaining happiness and safety in this Yuga.

Narada said:-
The entire mobile and immobile world acts as per the orders of the great God. This Kali yuga would only be like this and we have to save ourselves from it. In the previous Yugas we were able to obey Sasthra and their injunctions. In Kali we cannot carry out anything in the way that we desire. The only option is to perform rituals the best way we can and dedicate it to God with devotion to Lords Vishnu. The God will accept them and bless us.
If the man observing fast is not able to observe complete fast he can choose one out of
Water , root vegetables , fruits, milk , Rice without salt , what has been offered in Sradha , the teachings of Guru and medicine. These eight do not spoil the Vrutha of fasting.
By frequently drinking water , by frequently eating Thamboola (betel leaf plus betel nut) , by sleeping in the day time and having sex with ladies , the fasting ritual would be destroyed. So we should not do them while fasting.
Those great ones who do Japa (chant) do not have bad dreams, worry , ghosts , snakes , Brahma Rakshas , thieves, head ache etc So it is essential to chant good Mantras.
The one who lights the perennial lamp and maintains it in the temple of Vishnu or Lord Shiva , and maintains them everyday gets the effect of having performed an Aswamedha Yaga.
After meals , if we worship Lord Vishnu and eat the Nirmalya Thulasi(ocimum sanctum) leaf , then we would get rid of all sins and get the effect of having performed 100 Chaandrayanam,
During sacred thread ceremony, we can eat together with our mother and on the day of the marriage we can eat with our wives. But in all other times if we eat along with a lady, we would become sinners.
During Homa, Meals , Sandhya vandana , Japa and worship, we have to do Aachamana twice.
Sins do not stick on the body of a Brahmin in whose body Vedas are there. He would be personification of Vedas but by a bare body there is no use.
First we have to learn Veda face to face from some one. Then we have think and do research on the meaning of what we have learnt. Then we have to repeat again and again whatever we have learnt. We should do Brahma Yagna. We should teach what we have learnt to others. These are the five aspects of learning Vedas.
When we learn Vedas we have to lead a ritualistic life , follow the writs of the part of Veda we are learning , eat food on the floor and ;learn the entire Veda including Upanishads. This is the important duty of a Brahmin.
When we are learning Vedas , we should do it fast, when we are practicing we should do it with medium speed and when we are teaching it, we should recite it slowly.
When we are beginning to learn Prasna and Anuvaka , we have say Hari slowly similar to Harihi. It should be separately pronounced and not mixed with ?Om? , that follows it. ?Ha? should be told loudly and ?Ri? softly.
That Brahmin who teaches Vedas according to the tenets of Dharma , he gets similar benefit as that of Bhoo dhana (giving away land) and Godhana (giving away cows)
If a Gothra or Pravara rishi is found in some other Gothra, Such Gothras are considered as similar Pravara. But this is not applicable to Brugu Gothra and Aangeeras Gothra.
If a girl is not given in marriage (even after she grows up) , she can live in the house of her birth till death. So Just for the sake of marrying her away , we should not give her in marriage to a debased male.
In case of Sradha of mother and father , the Thila Tharpana should be done in the next day morning. But in Sradha of others, Tharpana has to be performed immediately.
On the first day of a Yuga , on the first day of the month , Pournavasya and on Vyatheepada , The Tharpana should be done before the Sradha where Anna is offered. In case of Ardhodhaya, Gajachaya , Sashti , Mahalaya Bharani and Mahalaya Maka , the Tharpana should be done afterwards.
In case of Nandi Sradham, Sapindeekaranam , Pretha Sradham , Anumasikam ,Apthika and Vimokam , there is no Tharpana.
In Mahalaya Sradha and in all Sradhas which are performed in the Hiranya form , the Tharpana should be performed after the Sradha. The consideration of before and after is only in case of Anna Sradha.
Brahmachari should not carry a corpse. If he touches, sacred thread ceremony should be performed again for him.
If several Sradhas come on the same day , first do Pratyapthika, (annual)then Masika(monthly) and then Darsa(on Amavasya)
Any sin which can be removed by starving for 15 days can be removed by doing 100 pranayamas. That sin which can be removed by doing 1000 Pranayama , can be removed in a second by meditating the four armed form of Vishnu with conch, mace, flower and the wheel. So please meditate on Hari always.
Among Mantras Shiva Panchakshara mantra called the king of Mantras is most superior, Among the ways, the way pointed out by Vedas is most superior. Among the things to be attained Salvation is the most superior.
There is no one like Samba or Eesaana who cut of the ties of worldly life, who is superior to me. I am divine , I am free , I am everywhere. My being everywhere is not due to the effect of illusion. I am witness for everything . (this indicates that worship of Lord Shiva gives us all that we desire and want.)

SAmkshepa Dharma Sasthram-Prayachitha Dharma Prakarana

Prayaschitha Prakaranam 2
(Chapter on redemptive rituals) 2
I. Prayaschitha Shabhadaratha 2
Meaning of the word Prayaschitha (Redemption) 2
II.Prayaschitha akarane dosha 2
The result of not doing redemptive acts. 2
III. Nava Vidhani Paapani 4
The nine types of sins 4
IV. Mahapathakas 4
Greatest sins 4
V. Athipathaka 5
Great sins 5
VI .Samapathaka 5
(ordinary sins) 5
VII. Upapathaka 5
Subsidiary sins 5
VIII. Sankarikaranani 6
Getting polluted 6
IX. Malinikarana 6
Making dirty 6
X .Apathrikarana 6
Dealing with undesirable 6
XI. Jathibramsakarana 6
Destroying community 6
XII. Jnana Ajnana krutha Papa Vichara 7
Sins done knowingly and unknowingly 7
XIII. Pathakam Dwividam 8
Two types of crime 8
XIV. Prajapathya Kruchra Lakshanam 8
The procedure of Prajapathya Kruchra(Mortification) 8
XV. Pada Kruchra 8
The procedure of Pada (quarter) Kruchra 8
XVI. Ardha Kruchra 8
The procedure of Ardha (half) Kruchra 8
XVII. Athi Kruchra 9
The procedure of Athi (more) Kruchra 9
XVIII. Kruchradhi Kruchram 9
The Kruchram of Kruchrams 9
IXX. Chaandrayanam 9
Mortification for 30 days 9
XX. Keshaam chith paapanam Prayaschitha 10
Redemptive acts for certain sins. 10
XXI.Rahasya papa pariharam 12
Redemptive acts for sins done secretly 12
XXII. Kruchraprathinidhaya 12
Alternative to Kruchra 12

Prayaschitha Prakaranam
(Chapter on redemptive rituals)

Translated by


(This chapter lists out the different types of sins which can be done by a Brahmin. It then tells us in detail about several rituals involving mortification to get rid of the effects of sins.)

I. Prayaschitha Shabhadaratha
Meaning of the word Prayaschitha (Redemption)

1. Angeeras
Praya means Thapas(deep meditation) and Chitha means definitely .That is for the sin or fault committed by us, if we do redemptive acts like Kruchra, Sharanagathi(surrender) as per shastras , it is believed that the sin would be removed. These acts of redemption are called Prayaschitha.

2. Vignaneswareeya
The word Prayaschitha indicates those actions which remove sins. So the sages have told it as a rudi (traditional ) word. The common word for that is Prayaschitha and so Vignaneswara says it is Yoga rudi Prayaschitha.

Sin occurs by not performing actions recommended by shastras, by performing actions banned by Shastras, and by having no rule or control over actions of sound, touch, form , taste and smell. Thus sin occurs as three types The man who does sin should definitely do redemptive acts.

II.Prayaschitha akarane dosha
The result of not doing redemptive acts.

1. Yagnavalkya
If the people who do sin do not do Prayaschitha and do not even feel the guilt of having performed the sin, they would suffer very hard and cruel punishments in hell.
There are 26 types of hell. They are Thamisra, Lohasanku, Mahaniraya, Salmali , Rourava, Kumbhala , Poothimruthika, Kalasuthrathapana, Mahanaraka, Kaakola, Samjeevana, Mahapada, Aaveesi, Andathamishra, Kumbheepaka , Asipathravana, and Thapana. These are the hells which would be attained by people who do Mahapathaka (greatly sinful acts) and Upapathaka (subsidiary sinful acts) and who do not perform redemption.

2. Yagnavalkya
The people who do the five Mahapathakas would suffer in cruel hells for a long time and take several births in this world.
The man who does Brahmahathi (literally killing of a Brahmin) sin is born as Deer, dog, pig and Camel. The Brahmin who takes up to Alcoholic drink, will be born as donkey , pulkasa(demon) and Vena(bard). The Brahmin who steals gold, will take birth as worms, insects and flying insects. The one who rapes his teachers wife, would be born as grass, plants and climbers.
The one who does Brahmahathi (killing of Brahmin literally) would be born as one with T.B. , the one who drinks alcoholic drinks would be born with black teeth and the one who steals gold will have brittle nails. The one who joins with these types of people is also a great sinner. The hells merited by the type of his friends and rebirths would be awarded to him also.
If we do holy or sinful acts, first you would undergo blessings and punishments in the present birth and would go to heaven or hell. If we do it intensively you would see the results in three years three months and three days. So intensity in doing sins is not good .Sins should not be done at all.

The type of rebirths taken by people who commit different types of sins is also told by Manu. He who befriends a sinner or steals the wife of another or steals the property of a Brahmin would be born as Brahma rakshas(a type of ghost) .
He who tells gossips about others would be born as one having a stinking nose. He who points out the ills of others would have a stinking mouth. He who steals grain would be born as handicapped. The Misraka(adulterator) who buys good grains and adulterates it with bad grain would have extra organs.
The one who steals food would be diseased , he who muzzles the opinion of others be born as a dumb one , the one who steals cloth would be born as one with Leucoderma and the one who steals a horse would be born lame.
The people who do such sins would not be liked by good people , would be zombies, would be dumb, would be blind , would be deaf and would have ugly looking organs.
People who due to avarice steal gems, corals and pearls would be born in criminal tribes.
The one who steals grains would be born as a mouse, the one who steals bell metal would be born as a swan , the one who steals water would be born as a water crow, the one who steals honey would be born as big fly , the one who steals milk would be born as crow, the one who steals juicy things would be born as a dog and the one who steals ghee would be born as a mongoose.
The one who steals white silk would be born as a small bird, the one who steals costly white silk would be born as frog, the one who steals things made of cotton thread would be born as a Krowncha bird , the one who steals a cow be born as mountain rat, and the one who steals Jaggery would be born as a bat.
The one who steals things made with good ivory would be born as a mouse , the one who steals leafy vegetables be born as a peacock, the one who steals cooked rice would be born as an animal called Swavith and the one who steals uncooked rice born as a porcupine.
The one who steals fire would be born as a stork, the one who steals house hold articles as a worm called Grahakari and the one who steals red apparels as a thief.
The one who steals deer or elephant would be born as wolf , the one who steals horse would be born as tiger , the one who steals fruits and flowers as monkey, the one who steals women as a bear , the one who steals drinking water as Chathka (bird who cannot drink water)bird, the one who steals vehicles as camel and the one who steals cows as white sheep.
Whatever may be the case , the one who steals the belongings of others would be born as a beast or a bird, Eating material meant for Homa without doing Homa is a sin which gives the same result. So undesirable acts should not be done.
There may be minor differences to the punishment which would be awarded, among different sages but one of them is definite.

III. Nava Vidhani Paapani
The nine types of sins

Anger, passion and avarice are the three enemies of men. The one who is subject to these does the nine types of sins viz Mahapathaka, Athipathaka , Samapathaka, Upapathaka , Samggeranakarana , malinikarana , apathreekarana, Jathibramsa karana and Prakeernaka.

IV. Mahapathakas
Greatest sins

Killing of Brahmins , drinking , stealing of the gold of Brahmins , raping teachers wife and being friends with these four types of people are Mahapathakas. The people who do these are called great sinners.

V. Athipathaka
Great sins

The man who rapes his Mother?s sister, friend of mother , daughter, father?s sister , uncle?s wife , sister and mother in law is the one who does Athipathakas.

Having sex with a debased one , aborting a foetus and killing husband are Athipathakas for women.

VI .Samapathaka
(ordinary sins)

Insulting elders , insulting Veda , troubling friends and forgetting the already learned Vedas are sins equivalent to Brahmahathi
Drinking Coconut water in a bell metal vessel, drinking milk mixed with salt , taking bath in water used by a washer man and drinking milk or curd in a copper vessel are considered equivalent to drinking Alcohol.

Stealing the article given to us for safe custody and stealing land, diamond and jewels are equivalent to stealing gold.

He who does evil things without intention or motive with his daughter , Dalith lady and the wives of friends as well as son which commits sin equivalent to raping the teacher?s wife. These are classified as Samapathakas,. But if he does it willfully it is Athipathaka..

VII. Upapathaka
Subsidiary sins

Conducting Yaga on behalf of a man who does not oknow Veda, Deserting teacher , father and mother , forsaking fire and Veda, giving up sons , The elder brother remaining bachelor when the younger one is married (the elder commits Parivithi sin and the younger parivedana) , giving away girls to such brothers, Performing marriages of such brothers , raping of a virgin, living out of interest earned from money, Serving a Brahmachari, Selling tank , flower garden , wife and son, not performing rituals like sacred thread ceremony at the proper time, not obeying paternal and maternal uncles, Teaching Vedas and Vedanta for money compensation, Reciting Vedas and Vedanta for money, Selling goods like Gingelly, being in charge of the treasury of the king, running machines, pinching medicinal plants, Earning a living by use of women, Performing worship for spoiling others, Attracting people by magical chants, Moola Karma (?) Cutting living trees for sake of fire wood, Cooking for our own eating, Eating food in homes of people who abuse Shastras, Being a government servant , Not doing Agnihothra(mandatory fire worship), Stealing metals other than gold, Not returning loan, Reading the science developed by Mlechhas(foreigners?), Engaging in music and dance , stealing grains, copper and similar metals and cows, Drinking habit , sex with wives of others, and troubling Kshatriyas , Vaisyas and others are called Upapathakas.

VIII. Sankarikaranani
Getting polluted

Killing of donkey , dog, Camel , Deer , Elephant , Goat, Sheep , fish snake and Buffalo are Sankarikarana sins.

IX. Malinikarana
Making dirty
Troubling worms , insects and birds, eating food mixed with alcohol and stealing flowers , firewood and fruits are classified as Malinikarana sins.

X .Apathrikarana
Dealing with undesirable

Taking money from those who do not follow rituals , selling things , serving others and telling lies for everything are Apathrikarana sins

XI. Jathibramsakarana
Destroying community

Wounding , troubling Brahmins and making them sad , smelling things like onion, garlic etc and denying sex to the husband are Jathibramsakarana sins.

XII. Jnana Ajnana krutha Papa Vichara
Sins done knowingly and unknowingly

Redemption is only for those sins which are committed unknowingly. For sins committed knowingly , there is no redemption.

2. Manu
Some people are of the opinion that redemption is there only for sins committed unknowingly. Others however believe that redemption is there for sins committed knowingly also.

The redemption for sins committed knowingly are double that for sins committed unknowingly.

There are two results of Prayaschitha (redemption). One is that he will not suffer in hell after death. He also can have good interaction with every one in this world when he is alive. But if he has committed the five great sins , even if he carries out redemption , no interaction should be there with him. No body should have any dealings with him. So except for these, in case of Upapathakas , if redemption is done , he will not suffer hell after death and even in this world he can interact with others. For people who do Upapathakas intentionally, they should do double the amount of redemption. If this is done even for them there is no suffering in hell and people will move with them.
There is no redemption for the one who does Mahapathakas intentionally. The only redemption is to fall from a mountain or falling in fire. That is redemptive acts are only for those Mahapathakas not done intentionally.
Because redemptive acts after death are banned in the Kali age , for the acts of passion done intentionally resulting in a Mahapathakas , the suffering for hell is bound to be there. But if he does the 12 year Sadhya Prayachitha, other people can move with him.
If Upapathakas are done unintentionally , just by reading Vedas, the redemption can be carried out. But if done intentionally redemptive rituals should be carried out.

It tells about redemption to those who aid a murder. The murderer, the man who approves it, the one who encouraged doing it, the man who helped in planning, The man who encourages a murder, The one who helps in its execution , The man who showed the path , the man who provided the place , the man who gave the weapon , The one who fed the murderer before committing it , the one who did not prevent it even though he could have prevented it , The man who appreciated it are all guilty. There is redemptive rituals for all of them.

XIII. Pathakam Dwividam
Two types of crime

Sins are of two types. One is doing sin with every one?s knowledge or publicly. This is called Prakasa papam. Another is the sin committed without any one knowing it. This is called Rahasya papam (Secret sin) . In case of Prakasa papam we should approach scholars who are expert in Vedas, Scholars knowing Dharma Sasthra and Great people who observe all rituals and carry out the redemptive ritual as advised by them. That is a Prakasa Prayachitham (public redemption). In case of Rahasya papam , the redemptive act also can be kept as secret,

XIV. Prajapathya Kruchra Lakshanam
The procedure of Prajapathya Kruchra(Mortification)

This consists of taking food for three days only in day time followed by three days of food only in night time, followed by three days of food once , if offered without begging which is followed by starving for three days. This takes a period of 12 days to observe.

XV. Pada Kruchra
The procedure of Pada (quarter) Kruchra

This consists of taking food for one day in day time only, followed by one day food at night time only , followed by one day one time food, if available without begging and one day of starvation. This takes a period of 4 days to complete.

XVI. Ardha Kruchra
The procedure of Ardha (half) Kruchra

This consists of taking food for one day in day time only, followed by one day food at night time only , followed by two days one time food, if available without begging and two days of starvation. This takes a period of 6 days to complete.

XVII. Athi Kruchra
The procedure of Athi (more) Kruchra

This consists of taking only one hand full of food once in three days in day time, followed by three days at night time followed by three days if available without begging. This is to be followed by three days of complete starvation. This takes a period of 12 days to complete. Some sages permit only one mouthful of food but Sage Parasara is kind enough to permit one handful of food.

XVIII. Kruchradhi Kruchram
The Kruchram of Kruchrams

This consists of drinking only water once during meals time for three days in day time, followed by three days at night, and followed by three days without begging, which would be followed by three days of complete starvation. Sage Yagnavalkya says that, taking once only milk for 21 days is Kruchradhi Kruchram. This is easier.
Thaptha Kruchram is taking once for three days hot water once, followed by three days of once hot milk followed by three days of hot ghee, which has to be followed by three days of complete starvation.

Santhapana Kruchram is taking Cow?s urine , Cow dung , milk , curd, Ghee and Kuchotha (?) in that order once for one day each , followed by one day of starvation.

Starving for 12 days is called Paraga Kruchram. Suppose we live for one month only on fruits , it is called Phala Kruchram, Suppose we take only gruel made of Barley for one month it is called Yavaka Kruchram.

Reciting Agamarshana Suktha followed by Thrishavasa (?) snana and observing fast for three days is called Agamarshana Kruchram.

IXX. Chaandrayanam
Mortification for 30 days

This is of two types - Pippeelika Madhyam (Ant middle) and Yava Madhyam (Barley middle.
Pippeelika Madhyam is fat in the beginning and end and slender in the middle and Yava Madhyam is thin in the beginnings and end and stout in the middle.

Sage Vasishta
This Is Pipeelika Madhya Chaandrayanam
Start on Prathama of Krishna Paksha. Take 14 handful of food on that day. On the second day take 13 handful and so on and observe fast on Amavasya. On Shukla Prathama take one hand full and next day two hand full and so on. On Pournami day take 15 handful.
This is Yava Madhya Chaandrayanam
Start on Shukla Paksha Prathama. Take one handful on the first day, two on the second day and so on for 15 days. On Krishna Paksha Prathama take 14 handfuls. Daily reduce one handful for 14 days and on Amavasya observe fast.

Before beginning of these rites, you have to shave and give Dhana and Dakshina to Brahmins.
Taking three handful of food for one month and living a life of austerity is called Rishi Chaandrayanam.
Taking four handfuls during day followed by four handfuls at night for one month and leading a proper life is called Shisu (child) Chaandrayanam.
Taking eight handfuls for one month is called Yathi Chaandrayanam.

XX. Keshaam chith paapanam Prayaschitha
Redemptive acts for certain sins.

Parasara says that in the Kali age the redemption for Brahma Hathi dosha is to take bath in Rameshwaram. He has instructions for doing it properly . We should do Sankalpa and without slippers and umbrella walk and reach Rameswaram from our home. While going you have to beg and eat. While Begging you have to say , ?I am a sinner, I have Brahma Hathi dosha, Please give me alms,?. We should never enter any house. We can take rest in river banks or cattle sheds, Frequently we have to describe the nature of sin committed by us to people. After reaching Rameshwaram , you have to take bath in Dhanushkoti and in all theerthas including Agni Theertham. After this we can to return to our village and give as Dhana hundreds of cows and feed hundreds of Brahmins.

The one who does Brahma Hathi Dosha , should build a hut outside the village and stay there for 12 years. He has to eat by begging for food in the Kapala (skull) of a human being. Also all the twenty four hours we should meditate on Hari.

The redemptive act for the one who kills a cow is like this. He should shave all the hair from his head , take bath thrice a day and observe Go (cow) Vrutha. He should live with the group of cattle at night. When Cows go for grazing during day time , he should follow them. He should not bother about sun , rain etc. He should pay attention in protecting the cow. If they are caught in mud, he should himself lift and help them. Then he has to observe Prajapathya Kruchram. That Kruchram should be divided in to four depending on the age of the cow killed. Then he should do Godhana and feed Brahmins. This is the Prayaschitha for killing cows.
Then he tells about redemptive act for killing a cow or for beating it a with a stick , big stone and knife and other weapons.
For the one who beats with a stick and kills , Santhapana Kruchram is prescribed. For the one who hits it with a ball of mud and kills it , Prajapathya Kruchram is prescribed. For the one who kills it with a stone Thaptha Kruchram and the one who kills with knife Athi Kruchram is prescribed.
If a man kills a cow and hides it, , he would go to the hell called Kala Suthra and suffer there for a long time. Then he would be born for seven lives as one who has great disease , eunuch and one who only suffers. In the term cow, bull also is included.

4. Manu
If a man drinks alcoholic drink , for redemption he has to boil the drink and drink it as such when it is boiling. If his body is burnt as a result, he would get rids of the sin committed by drinking.

If you happen to drink milk or coconut water in a copper vessel or drink milk mixed with salt or drink alcoholic drink knowingly you have to observe Chaandrayanam. If you do it unknowingly, Prajapathya Kruchra is sufficient.

If a Brahmin steals Gold, he should give a big mortar (Ulakkai) to the king and request the king to beat him with the mortar. If not he should do the redemptive act prescribed for drinking alcohol .Other alternative is to give to another Brahmin Gold equivalent to his own weight.
Going to a prostitute, destroys both respectability as well as wealth. This would also destroy fame and Thapas. Having sex with a widow would reduce your power as well as life. Having sex with some body else?s wife would destroy everything. The prayachitham for this is very harsh.

The man who spreads gossip about others, a rowdy , Drunkard and a Gambler are considered as very bad people. If we happen to live with any of them for one day, we have to perform Paraga Kruchra. If we live with any of them for 15 days, we have to perform Thaptha Kruchra . If we live with any of them for a month, we have to perform Prajapathya Kruchra. If we live for one year we have to perform Chaandrayanam. Then only we would become clean. If we live more than one year, we are also classified as very bad.

The one who takes bath in the well for 7 days, the one who takes bath in hot water for 7 days and the one who does not clean himself with mud after answering nature?s calls should do Prajapathya Kruchram and then drink Pancha Gavya to get himself cleaned.

10. Yagnavalkya
For getting rid of Upapathakas we have do Chaandrayanam or live with only milk as food for one month or perform Paraga Kruchra.

XXI.Rahasya papa pariharam
Redemptive acts for sins done secretly

Doing Veda Parayana daily , doing the five great Yagna (Pancha Maha Yagna) and being patient , destroy the sins committed in secret. Like a fire makes twigs in to ash , the Veda knowing Brahmin , drives away all the sins by the fire of his knowledge. It is also told that if we do 16 Pranayamas along with Mantras, the sins committed vanish.

Chaandrayanam, Yavaka Kruchra , Thula Purusha Dhana , Go Vrutha ,and taking care of cows are normal redemptive acts for all sins.

Even though we are involved in several sins , if we meditate on Achyutha and Vasudeva forgetting the world , we again become pure and become noble.

4. Brugu
Even if sins are done in one crore different ways , if we sing ?Rama, Rama?, by the effect of the name ?Rama? all sins would be destroyed This is a redemptive act for all sort of sins. There is no better redemptive act in any of the Shastras.

The man , though he has committed all sorts of sins ,, if he sings about Lord Shiva with a sinless mind and great devotion , he would become a pure soul.

6. Athri
If we chant the Sri Rudra Mantra, eleven times , even if we have committed great sins, we would get rid of all sins.

XXII. Kruchraprathinidhaya
Alternative to Kruchra

Because due to the change of time and place, we may not be able to observe Prajapathya Kruchra , The great sages have told other alternatives.. This Kruchram according to them is equivalent to feeding 12 Brahmins or Ten thousand times chanting of Gayathri or doing 1000 thila homams.

Prajapathya Kruchra is equivalent to

200 pranayamas
Or 12 times bathing in sacred rivers like Ganga
Or Walking 20 miles singing the names of God
Or Chanting Gayathri Manthra 10000 times
It is sufficient if one of them is observed.

If we are not able to observe Prajapathya Kruchra, we have to give one cow to a Brahmin, If this is not possible, we can give sufficient money to buy a cow to a Brahmin
If without intention sins occur to sagely elders , they can do Japa and Homa and get rid of the sin. If Sin is done by one who does not follow Achara, he has to do Kruchrams to get rid of sins. In case of rich people they can get rid of their sins by large donations of wealth.
Thus ends The chapter on Redemptive acts in Samkshepa Dharma Sasthra.

Thus ends The Samkshepa Dharma Shastra.

Samkshepa Dharma Sastram-Sradha Dharma Prakaranam

Sradha Prakaranam 2
(Details of after death and death ceremonies) 2
I. Mumukshur Prayachitha vidhi 2
The redemptive acts to be done by one who is nearing death 2
II, Mumukshor Dhana Vidhi 4
(The rules of Dhana for the dying soul) 4
III. Paryooshitha prayachitham. 4
(Redemptive acts for late cremation) 4
IV. Karthru krama:- 5
(The order of eligibility for carrying out death ceremonies) 5
V. Agni nirnaya. 7
The determination of the proper fire. 7
VI. Upavithadhi Niyama 7
(Those acts which should be done with normal wearing of sacred thread (On the left shoulder) 7
VII, Pretha nirharana prakara 8
The method for carrying the corpse. 8
VIII. Dahana Prakaranam 8
(The method of burning) 8
IX.Vapana Vidhi 9
(laws for shaving) 9
X. Dasama dina paryantha karthavyani 10
The rituals to be got done on tenth day. 10
XI. Karthru vishaye niyama 11
Some rules to be followed by the Kartha(the man who does rituals) 11
XII. Dampathyo saha mruthyu krama 14
Rituals when couple die together. 14
XIII. Garbhini Samskara 14
Cremation of a woman in pregnancy. 14
XIV. Ekadasahe vrushothsarga 14
The Vrushabha uthsarjana on the eleventh day 14
XV. Shodasa Sradhani 15
The sixteen Sradhas. 15
XVI. Sapindeekaranam 16
Merging the corpse to the manes 16
XVII. Sapindye Adhikarina 17
(the people entitled to do Sapindeekarana) 17
XVIII, Sapinda prakara 17
(the method of doing Sapinda) 17
IXX. Pinda samyojana Vidhi 18
(The rules for merging Pinda) 18
XX.Sothakumbha vidhi 20
Method of performing Sothakumba sradha. 20
XXI Abdhika Sradham 20
Annual ceremony of death 20
XXII Soura mase thithi dwaya sambhava anushtana krama 21
(the procedure when two thithis occur in the solar month 21
XXIII Sradhe thithi kaladhi niroopanam 22
(The analysis of suitability of Thithi to Sradham) 22
XXIV Sradha kadhinaam vibhakthai pradhaganushtanam 22
(Performance of sradha separately by brothers) 22
XXV. Mala masa niroopanam 23
(the particulars of Mala masa) 23
XXVI. Darsa Sradham 24
(Amavasya Sradham/tharpanam) 24
XXVII. Ardhodhaya mahodhaya punya kala niroopanam 24
Finding out of Ardhodhaya and mahodhaya punya kalas. 24
XXVIII. Ashtaka Sradha niroopanam 24
The time for Ashtaka Sradha 24
IXXX. Mahalaya Sradha Niroopanam 25
The particulars of Sradha during Mahalaya Paksha 25
XXX. Vrudhi sradha niroopanam 26
Sradha performed for progress ? particulars 26
XXXI Sradhe Desa kaladhi niroopanam 26
The differences in Sradha according to time and place. 26
Some important points in performing Sradha:- 28
XXXII Sradha Prasamsa 28
Praising Sradha 28

Sradha Prakaranam
(Details of after death and death ceremonies)

Translated by


(Though most of us are familiar with most of the day to day rituals, few of us know anything about death related rituals and after death ceremonies. This chapter deals with these aspects in great detail.)

I. Mumukshur Prayachitha vidhi
The redemptive acts to be done by one who is nearing death

Since due to health reasons it may not be possible to take bath, the person dying should perform Gowna bath (Manthram Agneyam) as much as his health permits,. These have been dealt in detail in Ahnika Prakarana section of this book.
After taking bath he should wear the caste marks(Urdhwa pundra) before starting the redemptive acts. It is told that even if the person wearing Urdhwa pundra is a sinner, he would shine in the land of Vishnu.
He who applies sacred ash and Rudraksha Garland would reach the presence of Lord Shiva. So before death , these have to be worn .If wise men wear them they would get special blessings.
Afterwards he has to drink the water used to wash the feet of the God. Even If we drink minute quantity water of Ganges along with leaf of Thulasi , Then 24 generations of our ancestors are saved from sin.

If we are not able to do the redemptive acts , they can be got done by other Brahmins. When you are sick or you are weak , or you are suffering due to drought or you are suffering due to war between kings, starving is the only redemptive act. It is also the fire sacrifice at that time. Any act got done by other Brahmins is same as doing it oneself.
Brahmins are the mobile waters and Saints are sacred waters .Water of their words purifies sinners and removes their sins.
The devas agree with whatever is said by Brahmins, because a Brahmin is the personification of the devas. His words are considered equivalent to words from Vedas.
The man nearing death should spread Durba grass on the floor and lie upon it. He cannot do any redemptive acts at that time. He should ask his representative to do Dhana. Giving away a cow (Godhana) is considered as very special and important.
He who gives way a milch cow before death is lead by that cow along the way to Brahma?s world.
Vyasa says that if one looses conscience or dies , the son who is to do the death ceremonies or any other relation should do dhana for the benefit of the dead person
Even if one does great sins or the nine type of sins , if he sees a great soul, his sins would vanish. So at the time of death it is beneficial to see great souls.
In whatever way they say ?Govinda?, sinners would get rid of their sins. Those without sins would attain salvation if they utter ?Govinda?
At the time of death if one chants , ?Shiva, Shiva, Shiva?, then the first chant of ?Shiva? removes all his sins and grants him salvation . The other two ?Shiva? chants are necessary but give happiness to the one who chants.
At the time of death the son should tell in the right ear , holy Sukthas (Vedic chants) , Mantras and names of Gods as well as Karna Mantra.
When the father is dying , the son should place the head of his father on his right lap and keep on telling in his right ears, holy chants like Ashtakshara, Panchakshara and Rama Shadakshara . This is the help that a son does to his father. After the soul leaves the body, grass should be spread on the floor and the body should be laid on it.

II, Mumukshur Dhana Vidhi
(The rules of Dhana for the dying soul)

Hey Dharmaputhra, between the earth and the land of Yama there is 86000 Yojnas( Each yojana is 10 miles) .The terrain is difficult to travel. Sun would be very hot. There would not be shade of trees. There would not be tank, streams and wells on the way. There would not be villages or houses. Stones and thorns would be strewn on the path besides burning sand. Only Dhana(charity) would help you to cross this road .So we should do Dhana as much as possible. This has to be done by the sons who do after death rituals. If they do the souls will not suffer much in reaching the land of Yama.

Cow, land , Gingelly, gold, ghee, cloth , grains, Jaggery , Silver and salt are called the ten dhanas , which can be given. These can be given at time of birth as well as death .Giving them away after death would give comfort to the departed soul in the land of the dead. Giving them away at birth , gives long and comfortable life to the child.
For him who goes outside his country, knowledge is his friend., for him who stays in his house wife is the friend, for him who is sick, doctor is the friend and for him who is dying , Dhana is the only friend.

III. Paryooshitha prayachitham.
(Redemptive acts for late cremation)
When a person dies in the day time, he should be cremated within 10 hours. If this is done it is not late. If cremation is not done within 10 hours, the body becomes old. To cremate it, permission has to be taken from Brahmins, do three Kruchrams(mortification ) , bath the body washed with Pancha Gavya (Mixture of cow dung, cow urine, milk, curd and ghee) and further bathed by water and later sanctified by chanting of Pavamana Suktha. If this is not done the entire after death ceremony is a waste.

If a person dies in the day time, he should be cremated in the day time itself. If he dies at night, he should be cremated before 9.45 PM. Afterwards cremation at night is not permitted.

If one dies before sun rise in the morning, he should be cremated in the morning itself. . If it is not done redemptive acts should be carried out. This redemptive act is given by Vaikanasa. So if one dies in the morning , he should be cremated in the day time but if one dies at night , he should be cremated before 9.45 PM. If we do cremation in the day time for one who dies at night, we have to perform redemptive ritual for late cremation.
If one dies in Kumba or meena rasi, he would get good after death life but his relations will suffer. So we have to do Dhanishta Santhi for those dying in Avittam, Chadayam, Pororattathi, Uthrattahi and Revathi.
For death during Dakshinayana, Krisha paksha, night or if death is accompanied by vomiting or passing of stools or death happens due to knife , we have to do Kruchram (mortification) and perform the redemptive ritual with Homa.

4.Kruchra prathinidhi:-
It has been told that we have to give away (as per our means), one cow for Prajapathya Kruchra, two cows for Santhapana Kruchra, three cows for Paraga Kruchram, Thaptha Kruchra and Adhi kruchra and eight cows for Chandrayana Kruchra.(these are described in the chapter o redemptive acts.

IV. Karthru krama:-
(The order of eligibility for carrying out death ceremonies)

1000 holy periods of eclipses, 10000 vyathee padam or one lakh Amavasyas are not equivalent to one sixteenth of a dwadasi. Three half crores of such Dwadasi will not become equivalent to one sixteenth of the death day of parents. This means that the death anniversary of our parents is a very holy day. You have to do the rituals with devotion and interest on that day.
The biological son should perform the rituals after death with proper mantras and utmost devotion.

The son should do offering of food and water to his father. Suppose he is not in a position to do it, he should offer fire (cremate) and get the other rituals done by some body else.

Though there are several brothers the eldest son only has to do Navasradham, Sapindeekaranam and Shodasa sradhams. Even if the sons have divided the property before the death of the father , the right is only to the eldest son. If eldest son is not available nearby, the eldest among the brothers present can undertake the cremation and other rituals associated with it.
If a man has several wives, the eldest among all his sons has only the right to do rituals to his father .The seniority of the wives is not taken in to consideration here. But in case of women, her eldest son only has the right to do cremation for her .In case of twins, the son born second is elder. The adopted son has to do such rites to his biological father, if he does not have sons or grand sons to do the rituals. If after adoption a biological son is born to the couple, only the biological son has the right..

5.Vrudha Manu:-

He who is doing penance during the pregnancy of the wife, you should not get shaved or cremate the bodies of any one except his parents.
He can also do cremation to his elder brother and uncle, if they do not have sons.

The Brahmachari (after sacred thread ceremony) can do the after death rituals to his mother?s father, uncle, Maternal grand mother who does not have sons and maternal uncle?s wife. This would not be considered as breaking of the Brahmacharya vow. Even if he has not received the sacred thread, he should do after death rituals to his parents.
If he is not capable of chanting the mantra, he should cremate their body and authorize some body else by giving them Durba to complete all necessary rituals.
If a man is doing a Yaga as Kartha (That is he has taken austere life for doing Yaga) and if either his mother or father attains death and if he is the only son , he should go and do death rituals of his parents and come back and complete the Yaga. If the parents die in between the marriage, he should offer Gingelly , pinda and do the cremation but should not do , after death ceremonies

The order of preference for doing after death ceremonies for the dead is as follows:-
Son, Son?s son, Son?s grand son, Daughter?s son , brother of the wife , son of the brother, father , mother, daughter in law , sister, sister?s son , member of the paternal clan and those who receive money, If the first one is not there, the subsequent one will get the right. If during marriage of the daughter , a mantra is told that her son would be responsible for after death ceremonies, that son will be called Dwayamushnan. He would be from both the paternal and maternal gothras.

In the world, there is no difference between son?s son and daughter?s son and so the daughter?s son inherits the wealth of those who do not have a son. So the daughter?s son should be considered as having the right to do death ceremonies of his mother?s parents.
Even if the maternal grand father does not have wealth , the daughter?s son should do the after death rights of his maternal grand parents.
The wife is considered to have more right to do death ceremonies of her husband than their daughter?s son. The son should do death ceremonies for his father. If he is not there, the person?s wife should do it. The next order is daughter?s son , brother , brother?s son etc,
If the wife without a son dies, her husband should do death ceremonies for her. If a daughter?s son is there, he can be asked to do it. If one person has several wives and one wife has a son, he should do death ceremonies for all his step mothers.

V. Agni nirnaya.
The determination of the proper fire.

1,Vrudha Manu:-
The Ahithagni (fire made at that time) should be lit with other three agnis , Anahithagni with Oupasanagni and others by Loukikagni.(normal fire from other sources)

The man who dies before his wife should be created by Oupasanagni.
If the wife dies earlier than the man should be cremated by Uthbhanagni (see next para for definition) .Similarly if the wife dies after her husband she should also be cremated by Uthbhanagni. If the wife dies before the collection of bones from the pyre of the husband and if fire is still there in the pyre of the husband , the wife should be cremated in that fire. If fire is not there a new funeral pyre should be set up.

If a fist of Durba grass is burnt in the domestic fire , and in that fire another fist of Durbha is lit and in that fire , if another fist of Durbha is lit , then the resulting fire is Uthbhanagni. If head of the corpse is burnt in fire made out of paddy shell and this fire is lit in a Durbha it is called Kapalagni.
The fire made out of the head is Kapalagni and that made with paddy shell is called Dushagni and the fire caught in the third fist of Durbha grass is called Uthbhanagni .The widower and widow should be cremated in Uthabhanagni. The bachelor should be cremated in Kapalagni. The boy who has not received sacred thread and also an unmarried girl should be cremated in Dushagni . If the husband takes Sanyasa and if his wife dies before him, she should be cremated in Oupasanagni.

If the cremation rtes cannot be performed in one?s own Sutra,, it can be done in any other Sutra. If we observe Bodhayana Suthra, we get the same effect as if it is observed in our own Suthra.

VI. Upavithadhi Niyama
(Those acts which should be done with normal wearing of sacred thread (On the left shoulder)

Bathing , Aachamana , Pranayama , Namaskara (saluting), Pradakshina (going round) even if it is done during a ritual of Manes (pithrus) should be performed with Normal fashion of wearing sacred thread.

In the ritual connected with the corpse (pretha) , Aachamana should be done in the beginning and end. This is true for every ritual for the success of the ritual. For having internal cleanliness Pranayama should be done.
In the case of ritual with Corpse, the sacred thread should be worn in the opposite shoulder (pracheena vidhi) When you are carrying the corpse, it should be worn as a garland (neevithi) . This rule is meant for people who carry the corpse.
In case of Avahanam , argyam , Sankalpam , Pinda dhanam , Thilodhaka Dhanam , Akshayam , Aasanam and Padhyam, the names and Gothra should be definitely mentioned.

VII, Pretha nirharana prakarana
The method for carrying the corpse.

A Rig Vedi should cover the corpse with cut cloth and a Yajur Vedi with a cloth that is not cut.

2. Prachetha:-
The son should bathe the corpse , worship it , applied sandal paste and make it wear flower garlands, If Ahithagni (Fire made at that time ) is used, shaving (kshouram-could also mean hair cut) should be done. Other wise there is no need for this.

The corpse should be kept on a platform made of Athi wood facing the sky. The corpse should not face the village or the place below. It should have its head facing the south.
We have to walk in front of the corpse of people elder to us. Ladies and younger people should walk behind. All people should go with untied hair and tying the upper cloth on their waist carrying a lighted torch. No body should be there between the corpse and the fire which is being taken to light it.
First fire , then necessary materials. Gingelly , rice , branch of Palasa tree , Pieces of Hiranya, Ghee vessels , Stone , sand should be sent. This should be followed by the corpse . You should always walk away from the village and not towards the village.

VIII. Dahana Prakaranam
(The method of burning)

1.Vyagra pada
The corpse should not be lit with down looking face, without cloth , when it is dirty .It should not be burnt with wood not suitable for yaga , brought by sinners and that which is spoiled by worms as well that which is very old. Half the cloth which the corpse wears should be burnt by torch and the other half worn to the corpse.

Afterwards the corpse should be kept on the funeral pyre. In the sense organs either gold or ghee should be kept.

Curds, ghee, Gingelly and rice should be placed in the mouth of corpse.

Fire should not be kept on the corpse. In the Veda Corpse is considered as that which is offered to the fire and so is should be offered to the fire. If this is not done, nothing good will come out of the act. So the fire should be put on the pyre . Afterwards chant the Upasthana Mantra and the rest of the fire should be put on the pyre.
The pyre should be lit from all directions. Please understand that the man who died will reach the world of Brahma by this.
After cremation, the cloth one wears should be washed and the one who does the cremation should take bath. Then he should take bath wearing cloths and this would make him clean. That is he becomes one with a clean mind.
When going to the cremation ground, the youngest should go first and while coming back home, the eldest should come first.

If we follow the corpse or go along with his paternal clan , we should take bath, eat food along with ghee and again take bath. If ghee is not available , chant Gayathri 10 times and drink water. After this Japa and Homa should not be performed for one day.

IX.Vapana Vidhi
(Laws for shaving)

Without shaving we should not do rituals with corpse. Similarly Offer of water, rice balls and Sradha should not be done without shaving.
If one shaves himself just before cremation , he troubles his manes. So shaving should only be done after cremation. Immediate shaving has to be done to the man who does the cremation. All paternal clan members should shave themselves on the tenth day.

Even if it is elder brother, his son , sibling or disciple , if the cremation is done by a younger person, he should definitely shave himself. If the cremation is done at night, after sacrificial offering of water, Shaving should be done next day because at night no body should shave himself.

If the cremation is done for mother or father , whether it is a Friday or on the tenth day or even if the cremation was done at night , the water offering and shaving should be done then itself. In case of others shaving has to be got done next day morning. These bans are not applicable in case of father/mother. Sasthra tells that even in case of parents, shaving should not be done after two Yamas at night. But this is not applicable to son. If the person who was cremated is younger , the elders and paternal clan members do not have shaving.
In case of Maternal grandfather , Maternal grand mother, Father?s brother , Uncle , Elder brother, Father in law , Teacher and his wife , Father?s sister, Mother?s sister and sister , even if the one who cremates has a pregnant wife he should undergo shaving . If he is not the one who does the cremation , the husband of a pregnant woman should not undergo shaving. In case of elderly paternal clan members , father in law , mother in law, elder sister, and her husband, there is shaving in case of their death. Even if wife dies early or even if the father and mother in law do not have children , there is taint for one day but no shaving.
If the tenth day happens to be a Friday, the clan members have to get shaved on the previous day. This rule is not applicable to the son.
If Sapindeekaranam is done on the 12th day to the mother and father then shaving is not necessary , If this is done in other times like Tripaksha, shaving has to be got done.
In case of cropping Sashti, Ashtami , Prathama , Chathurthi , Navami and Chaturdasi are to be omitted. Monday, Thursday , Wednesday and Friday are suitable. The shaving for the taint because of touching the corpse should not be got done on Fridays.

X. Dasama dina paryantha karthavyani
The rituals to be got done on tenth day.

1.Akhanda darsa,
Reach the village with wet clothes and give brass vessel , cloth, ghee , vessel full of rice as gift to a Brahmin as part of the Prachadana Sradha.
Carry new cloth , Gingelly , Durba grass, pot take bath in the river , then chant Mantras on the river bank , do Avahana of Pretha on the ritualistic stones, do Vasodhakam thrice, Thilodhaka thrice, consecrate it there, do Vasodhakam thrice and offer Pinda and Bali.

Till you have taint, water and rice ball offering should be done to the Pretha(Corpse) The clan members and the cremator should do Thilodhaka thrice on first day , four times on the second day , five times on third day and so on.(total of 75 Thilodhakas) This is not applicable to Vasodhakam, It has to be done only thrice a day. The Dhoti should be folded thrice and water expelled from it.

Place the Durba facing south , sit south facing and offer the Pindas at the door step. You have to be silent and clean before the Pinda. The rest of the rice should be thrown in the river.

The size of the Pinda (rice ball should be that of a Bilwa fruit in case of apthika (first annual ceremony) , Parvana , Gooseberry size in case of Gaya Sradha and Mahalaya, size of a coconut in case of Yekodishta and Sapindeekarana and in case of other annual ceremonies it should be of the size of a hen?s egg.
If the cloth stone or the pot in which the water is being brought or the vessel used for cooking or the man who does the ritual changes the entire procedure from the beginning needs to be repeated, Devala says like this
The stone in which the dead body is consecrated should not be moved for ten days. If the stone is lost , a new stone should be consecrated and the entire procedure repeated, If the stone moves from the place it is consecrated then the man who does the ritual should do three pranayamas touching it.
Yekothara Vruthi dhana depends on the number of Udhaka dhana and that many sradhas are to be done in aama roopa(?)
The nava sradhas should be done on 1,3, 5,7,9 and 11th day. So six nava sradhas are done. If these nava sradhas are not done on the specified days, they should be done on the 11th day.

The Asthi Sanchayana (collection of bones) should be got done on the next day, third day , fifth day or 7th day, This should be done in the morning time. It is recommended that it should be done within four hours after sun rise.

6.Yoga Yagnavalkya
The son who does the cremation should deposit the bones collected in river Ganges or Yamuna or Kaveri or river Sathadruthu or river Saraswathi, In case of parents proper day for Asthi Sanchayana need not be observed. In other cases it is a must.
On the tenth day because the Pretha has all its organs it gets very great hunger. To appease this hunger several dishes should be offered as Prabhoothabali. This has to be done before Udaka and Pinda Dhana on the tenth day. After the Pinda Dhana, the pretha should be removed from the consecrated stone.

In case of cremation other than parents , if Darsa Sradha (amavasya) comes within ten days , Udaka and Pinda dhana have to be completed before it. Asthi Sanchayana should be done before Amavasya.
But in case of parents this is not applicable and the ceremony should not be cut short but continue for ten days.

XI. Karthru vishaye niyama
Some rules to be followed by the Kartha(the man who does rituals)

People who have taint should not consume salt , pungent food , oil , betel leaf , should not have any relation with woman nor should sleep in a cot.
In case Savagni (fire of the corpse) is put out, the ordinary fire can be used for rituals of redemption (prayachithahoothi) .

1. If younger son does the cremation and the elder one arrives before Sanchayana, , he should shave himself , do the Sanchayana , do extra udaka dhanas and continue with the full cremation ritual. But if he comes after the Sanchayana, he should do all the rituals up to Yekodishta starting with extra udaka dhana , then observe ten day taint and do the Sapindeekaranam in the tripaksha period.
2. If the cremation is done by some others , the son should again do cremation and do the rituals for ten days.
3. If the cremation is done by some one else re cremation (Punar dahanam) has to be got done.
4. If the one who is entitled to do cremation (other than son) comes before Sanchayana , there is no re cremation. . That is rule number 3 is applicable only in case of sons.
5. If a man who does not belong to the paternal clan does the cremation and if the chief Kartha (who does rituals) comes before Sanchayana, then to the man who does the cremation there is neither taint or Udaka dhana. But if he comes after Sanchayana and if the outsider had taken the tainted food, he has to observe ten day taint and Udaka Dhana.
6. But if the cremation is done by brother , nephew etc who have normal three day taint , they have to observe ten day taint and offer Udaka Dhana, even if the Kartha comes and takes over.
7. If the chief Kartha does not come, he who does the cremation should do all rituals up to Yekodishta. Unless this is done he will remain tainted.
8. If the younger son does the cremation , if the eldest one comes on the tenth day , he should shave , offer Udahaka and Pinda Bali , Prabhoothabali , shave himself completely , perform Yekodishta on the tenth day , and then observe ten day taint and do Avruthathyam and Sapindeekaranam. But if the Kartha is not the son, his taint goes away on the tenth day.
9. If the son comes after 10 days but on the eleventh day , he should shave do Yekodishta and do the Thilodhaka rites that should have been carried out during the first ten days , If no ritual has been done and he comes within ten days , he should do Udahaka Dhana for ten days after he reaches and do Yekodishta on the eleventh day. Then he should do Sapindeekaranam in the tripaksha (45th day) If he comes on the night of the tenth day , he should first do the rites to be carried out for first ten days in the eleventh day morning .
10. If the cremation has been done by an outsider and also first day ten day ritual has been performed and if the son comes before Sanchayana on the tenth day , he should start with Punar Dahanam (re cremation) and do all rites up to Yekodishta. Including Udaka dhanam He also should observe taint for next ten days . If he comes after Sanchayana , he should observe Vrushithsarnam , Yekodishta , observe ten day taint and also Udaka dhana.
11. If the son is abroad and either his father or mother expires and if the rituals up to Yekodishta has been performed by an outsider or another son , as soon as he hears about it, he should shave , observe ten day taint , do Udaka dhanam and Sapindeekaranam. If Sapindeekaranam has also been done, the eldest son should again repeat the rituals up to Sapindeekaranam. If the rituals have been carried by the elder son, the younger son need not repeat them again.
12. if the Sapindeekaranam has been done by an outsider, if the eldest brother is not near by , then if the younger ones share the property of the deceased , then each of them have to do Sapindeekaranam separately. If the wealth is not going to be divided, only the eldest among them need to do it.
13. If the son who lives abroad hears about the death of his father/mother only after one year, he should observe ten day taint and do all the rituals. But Masika and Sothakumba need not be performed, He can directly do the Apthika (first year death anniversary ceremony).But if he hears before one year, he has to do all rituals including Masika and Sothakumba .If the son is younger and the rituals have already been performed by elder son, he need not repeat them again. He needs to observe three day taint and do Udahaka dhana.
14. If the biological son of a step mother is not nearby, the step son has to do the rituals. If the biological son comes in the middle, he has to complete the rituals. If he comes after Sapindeekaranam, he has to repeat it. If you hear about the death of a step mother within a year, ten day taint and Udaka dhana has to be performed. If you hear afterwards only taint period need to be observed.
15. If you hear the death of an elder brother, where rituals have been performed within six months of his death, you have to observe three day taint. If you hear afterwards, Bakshini taint only need to be observed.
16. If somebody goes away some where and nothing is known about him , after 12 years , the death ceremonies long with prithi kruthi dahana should be done within three days. This has to be done after doing Narayana Bali. In case of father or mother this should be done only after 15 years .The months of Ashada, Magha Margaseersha , Badra pada and Krishna Paksha Ekadasi or Amavasya can be taken as the day of death and annual ceremonies performed
17. In case of Ahithagni, the taint is ten days after cremation and in case of Anahithagni the taint is ten days from death.
18. If the person who does cremation does another cremation within ten days , then the second taint will go away along with the first taint. But if the cremation is being done to the parents, full ten day taint has to be observed.
19. If father dies during the taint days of mother?s death, the sons have to observe ten day taint from the day of death of father. But if mother dies during the taint of father?s death, the taint of mother?s death would pass away after one and half days after the ten day taint of father.
20. If mother dies first, on the eleventh day after her death Yekodishta has to be performed for her. For the father who dies during the taint period, again Yekodishta has to be performed ten days after his death .But if father dies first , on the tenth day of father?s death , do Pinda dhana and Udahaka Dhana for mother and on the eleventh day after father?s death , perform Yekodishta for father, and on the eleventh day of mother?s death do Adhya Sradha for the mother.

XII. Dampathyo saha mruthyu krama
Rituals when couple dies together.

If the couple dies together or if one of them dies before the cremation of the other , cremation has to be done together. But if one of them died after the cremation , rituals have to be performed separately.

2.Pithru medha sara
Hiranya Sakalam, Nagna prachadana sradham, Vasodhakam, Thilodhaka , Pindam , Ekothara vrudhi sradham , nava sradham , Sothakumba, Vrushith sargam , and Shodasa sradham have to be done separately. Charukaryam , Funeral pyre , Kundam, Asthi Sanchayana and Santhi Homam have to be done together. Yekodishta. Sapindeekaranam and Nimithvaranam have to be done separately. Paka Homam and Vaiswadevadhikam have to be done together.
In case, the one to do death rituals is the same and two person of the same clan die together , depending on the relation between them , the death rituals have to be performed

In case of death together the son has to Sapindeekaranam to his parents on the 12th day. For others he can do it on the 45th day.

XIII. Garbhini Samskara
Cremation of a woman in pregnancy.

If a pregnant woman happens to die , take her to the cremation ground , arrange the funeral pyre and on the west side of the pyre , split open the stomach of the deceased chanting the mantra ?hiranyagarbha? on the left side. And also telling ?Jeevathu mama puthro Deergayuthwaya (let my son live long)? . If the child is alive take it out , bathe it , give it milk and take it to the village. Then pour ghee in the deceased?s stomach and do Aajyahuthi , stitch the stomach and then cremate her. Also give cow as gift.

XIV. Ekadasahe vrushothsarga
The Vrushabha uthsarjana on the eleventh day

On the eleventh day with an aim of sending the dead soul to the heaven , leave away to the public (Temple?) a bull for pleasing Rudra and then feed Brahmins in the Sradha.

If a bull is not left on the eleventh day , that soul remains as Pisacha (ghost) . Even if you do 100 sradhas it does not help. So Vrushbaha uthsarjana is very important.
On the eleventh day Yekodishta Sradha has to be necessarily performed, If it is not done , later the entire death ritual has to be repeated.
If you do not get Brahmin for Yekodishta on the eleventh day , you have to take hand full of Payasanna and offer it to the fire 32 times chanting ?Yamayasomam?. The performer should observe silence , face the south and do the homa. If this is done, then the Yekodishta is well done.

In the adhya Sradha the Brahmin has to be fed. or at least homa should be done in the fire . And again Brahmin has to be fed.

The adhya Sradha has to reach a Brahmin or fire and again offered to a Brahmin.

XV. Shodasa Sradhani
The sixteen Sradhas.

The sixteen Sradhas can all be done on the eleventh day. The sapindeekarana has to be done on the 12th day.

1. Gowthama
Due to the possible problems created by time as well as the place that we live and also due to possibility of disease and death the sixteen sradhas have to be performed on the eleventh day.
The adhyam (first) on the eleventh day , the 12 masikams, the tripakshikam (forty fifth day ceremony) , the shan Masika (the sixth month ceremony) and the one performed before the annual ceremony are the sixteen sradhas.
When we are doing Sapindeekaranam on the 12th day, on the eleventh day these sixteen sradhas are to be abridged and performed as Yekodishta and one rice ball (pinda) given. Then for each of the 16 sradhas pinda dhana has to be performed. In the fire Prethahuthi is done once and all the other fifteen are combined and performed once. After Sapindeekaranam , again the monthly and other Sradhas have necessarily be done. If you do no get Brahmins for the sixteen sradhas it can be done in the Aama form also.


Within day or two from the Oona day, Oona Masika has to be performed. This is true for Unapthikam also. The first oonam should be performed within 3 days of the 27th day of death. The tripakshikam should be performed within 5 days of the 40th day. The oona shan Masika has to be performed within ten days of the 170th day. The oona apthika has to be performed within 15 days of the 340th day. Oona masikams have to be performed on odd days . It is good if the day to be performed is selected properly. If good events take place in the house, the oonams can be done after Akarshana(?). But it should not be redone after the good event.

The sixteen sradhas should be done before Sapindeekaranam. The sradhas which are performed after Sapindeekarana should be performed like Pratyapthika sradhas. (annual ceremonies) They should be carried out in the parvana method. The Sradha done aimed at three ancestors viz pitha (father), pithamaha (grand father) and prapithamaha (great grand father) is termed as Parvana.

For the Sanyasis the son should not perform Yekodishta and sapindeekarana. On the eleventh day Parvana Sradha should be performed. On the twelfth day Narayana Bali has to be performed.

XVI. Sapindeekaranam
Merging the corpse to the manes

The Sapindeekarana can be done on the 12th day or after one year.

The sapindeekarana can be performed on the 12th day , 11th month, 6th month ore 4th month.
If the parents have only one son and he does the cremation, it would be better if sapindeekarana for parents is performed on the 12th day. This is because there is no guarantee for the son?s life.
If the doer is one who is entitled to do cremation and if the dead one was one entitled for cremation and in case of mother and father Sapindeekaranam should be performed on the 12th day.
Even if both of them are not entitled to do cremation , the sapindeekarana can be done on the 12th day. It could be done later also. But due to convention it is normally performed on the 12th day.
The man who carries out death ceremonies , is not entitled to perform any good rituals without doing Sapindeekaranam.

Sapindeekaranam can be performed from 11th to 16th day. It could be done on 17th day also.

If it is not possible for some reason to do Sapindeekaranam on the proper day, it could be performed in the Panchami, Ashtami , Amavasya or Ekadasi in the Krishna Paksha.

5.Smrithi rathna
Sapindeekaranam can be performed on Amavasya, on the thithi when the body expired or in Mahalaya Paksha. In such cases , the unsuitability of Thithi and day need not be seen. If Sapindeekaranam is done after completion of one year the 16 sradhas have to be redone.

6. Gobhila
If the does is Ahithagni and the dead one is Anahithagni , then the Sapindeekaranam should be done on the 12th day

XVII. Sapindye Adhikarina
(the people entitled to do Sapindeekarana)

The Sapindeekarana should be either done by own son or adopted son .If one of them are there it is improper for others to do it.

The son has to do sapindeekarana for his father. If son is not there, the grand son or wife or brother in that order are entitled to do it.
In case of death of the woman, if son is not there, her husband is entitled to do Sapindeekarana for her.
Without bothering for the age , if man or woman is married Sapindeekarana is to be done for them

3.Vrudha Vasishta
In case of Brahmachari , eunuchs, sinners, bad woman, Nastikas (atheists) and Sanyasis, Narayana bali has to be done. Upakurvana Brahmachari is entitled to sapindeekarana. In case a Brahmachari dies before the age of 12, he is entitled only to Narayana Bali.

XVIII, Sapinda prakara
(the method of doing Sapinda)

1.Brauhad Vishnu
Sapindeekaranam has to be done on the 12th day after the death of the father. For the father to come out of the corpse state(pretha) and joining with his forefathers as Sapinda and attaining equality , son should adopt Parvana method for manes and use the Yekodishta method in case of father , This Sapindeekarana is a mixture of Parvana as well as Yekodishta .

In case the father has died but the grand father is alive , he should do parvana Sradha for three generations above great grand father and merge the pinda for father along with them.
In the case of a wife who does not have sons., the husband should do sapindeekarana to his wife.

Two sradhas should be started and Sapindeekarana has to be done. Parvana has to be done first and Pretha Varna Sradha using the Yekodishta method should then be done. Combination of these two is Sapindeekarana.
In Sapindeekarana sradha , first Kala agamaka Viswedeva, then pithrus and in the end Pretha should be recognized and called.
In all parvana sradhas a Brahmin should be recognized as the form of Vishnu. Devala and Chandilya say that any Sradha where Vishnu is not recognized would not lead to any purpose.

IXX. Pinda samyojana Vidhi
(The rules for merging Pinda)

1. Pithru medha sara
Make 7 Pindas using the cooked rice remaining after performing Homa. If two people die together 8 Pindas should be made. If many people are going to be made Sapinda then that many Pindas have to be made. These should be kept on three rows of Durba (with tip pointing towards the south) in the south of the fire. Then we have to face south and with left knee kept on the floor keep on the middle row of the spread Durba grasses chanting the mantra ?Marjayantham mama pithu pithra?, on the column on the west side chanting the mantra ?Marjayantham Mama mathara? and then on the column of the south do Marjanam. and In the same order keep the six Pindas and chanting Yeschatwamanu and Yachatwamanu clean below the Durba with whatever is remaining in hand , then chanting Marjayantham mama Pitha Pretha(in case of father) or Marjayantham mama matha pretha pour water and say ?. Gothra?? Sarman , pretha yetham pindam upanishta and offer the Pinda and in case of mother ?? gothre ???..naamni prethe , offer the Pinda.
After being permitted by Brahmins chanting the two mantras ?Samano mantra? and
?Samaneva?,The argya for pretha should be merged with Argya for Pithrus and the merged pretha Pinda should be divided in to three , kept before the pinda of father etc , perform the Gift of cow for crossing Vaitharani and get permission and using mantras ?Madhumathi? , Sangachathwam , Samano manthran and Samaneeva merge the three parts of pretha Pinda in to one using the two stretched hands.
After merging pretha panda like this chanting the two manthras ?Yesamana? and Yesajatha?, again do marjanam as mentioned earlier. In case of Tripindism there would be four pandas.

In case of Sapindeekaranam of mother the sons should merge the pinda for mother with that of paternal grand mother Similar action should be done in case for Sapindeekaranam of maternal grand parents.

If you do not know the Gothra tell as Kashyapa Gothra. This is because Veda says that all beings originated from Kashyapa.
If we do not know the name of the father , tell ?pithivishath?. If grand father?s name is known tell ?antharikshasath? and if great grand father?s name is not known say ?Divishath?.

The river Vaitharani has bad smelling blood flowing in it , is black in colour and tides are extremely fast. It also contains bones and hair in it. This is on the way to the land of Yama. If Cow is given as gift during sapindeekarana, the pithrus cross this river easily. So gifting of cow is important during sapindeekarana.
The sapindeekarana of the parents have to be done by the eldest son. That which is performed with the permission of all using the undivided wealth , is considered as having been done by everybody. The Sapindeekaranam of the parents should not be done by all brothers.

For the mother, father maternal grand mother, maternal grand father and eldest brother, the Sapindeekaranam should be performed in Oupasana fire. The eldest brother is equivalent to the father. The Sapindeekaranam to the paternal grand parents also should be done using Oupasana fire.
For a Brahmachari and a widower, the Sapindeekaranam should be done on Loukika fire. This is the opinion of sage Apasthamba.
If Oupasana fire is far off then some people feel that the homa can be performed in hand itself. This is not correct. The homa done with the sacred thread worn over right shoulder , should be done only in fire.
The remnants of the Homa should be kept in the meals plate of Brahmins, meditating on Lord Vishnu.
The one who does not have a wife or the one whose wife is very far away or the one who is a Brahmachari can do Sradha in Agni but should use only Loukika fire.
If wife is having periods, after she has taken purificatory bath , we have to raise fire afresh and do Sapindeekarana. Even if the fire is there, it is not proper to do it before her bath as there is sufficient time period given to do Sapindeekaranam. That is, it should not be done during the unclean period.
If there are several brothers and if the eldest one is not maintaining Oupasana fire, the next one who maintains Oupasana fire should do the Sapindeekaranam. If there is only one son and if he does not maintain Oupasana fire, then he can do it in Loukika fire,
If for the one who is to do the Sapindeekaranam, wife is not amenable , he can wait up to one year for her and after her coming do the Sapindeekaranam. If this is not possible the next brother who maintains Oupasana fire can be asked to do it. If there is only one son and his wife does not come within a year , he can make some one represent his wife and do the Sapindeekaranam.
If the wife is amenable doing Sapindeekaranam leaving her out is a useless exercise. He does not have the right to do Sapindeekaranam.

XX.Sothakumbha vidhi
Method of performing Sothakumba sradha.

That Sradha where Viswadeva and Vishnu are not considered and done aiming at three men is done with Udhakumbha and is called Sothakumba sradha. In this case there are no special rules to be followed by the performer nor the Brahmin who comes to do it. The performer can do Sothakumba Sradham after Brahma Yagna and regular worship, The first one should be performed on the twelfth day and then it should be done daily for one year.

If it is not possible to do it , it should be at least done once in a month. It could be done during Darsa or before Masika Sradham. When you are not able to do it in a particular time, it can be done along with the next . People may question that once the Pretha status is removed on the 12th day by doing Sapindeekaranam , there is no heat generated by Janitha Kshudragni. It is said that even though Pretha status is removed, in the mind there will be fear of pretha status for one year,
After Sapindeekarana and before Apthika (annual ceremony) Darsa , Mahalaya and Manvadhi Sradha should not be performed. But Tharpana can be done. Ashtaka Sradha also could be done.
The death taint while performing death ceremonies is for 12 days. So during these 12 days Worship of God, Pithrus , Homa Dhana , and Japa should not be done.

XXI Abdhika Sradham
Annual ceremony of death

1.Dharma Sudha nidhi
The Abdhika should be done in the same Thithi and in the same month and same Paksha in which the death occurred.

The Abdhika should be done in the same Thithi in which death occurred. Among the Thithi , Vara (day) and Nakshatra , thithi is the most important.

The month-paksha ?thithi combination in which death occurred is observed as the death anniversary day every year. This is the advice of elders.
The time between Amavasya (darsa) to another Amavasya is the lunar month. Depending on the solar movement , the solar month also is defined. This is called Soura month.
The lunar month is classified as Darsantham and Poorni mantham. This has been decided based on caste difference and regional differences. South of Narmada river Darsantha Chandra masa is observed and to the north of the river Poornimantha is observed. In case of Vrutha (penance) Chandra masa(lunar month) is considered superior. But in case of Sradha, it should not be considered. This is because due to occurrence of Athimasa, Lunar month is not stable. The solar month is stable. So for death related functions solar month is used,
The Dakshinayana and Utharayana are determined based on the movement of the Sun.
For observing death related ceremonies stick to either lunar or solar month. This should not be changed in the middle. This has to be chosen as per the practice of the elders of our family. Those who use lunar month , should observe it in Athimasa thithi or Nija masa thithi.

XXII Soura mase thithi dwaya sambhava anushtana krama
(the procedure when two thithis occur in the solar month

If two thithis come in the solar month Apthika, Masikams and Pratyapthika should be observed in the later Thithi. If Grahana or Sankramana comes in the later Thithi , it becomes bad and then the Sradha should be performed in the first Thithi.
If both thithis happen to be bad , if Sankramana occurs in the Aparahna (see XXIII-2) , the former Thidhi should be chosen. If not the later Thithi can be chosen. If in both the Aparahnas are bad , then that thithi which has more relation with the month should be chosen.
If both parents die in the same thithi and if Sankramana comes after Aparahna, we can perform sradham. If both thithis are faultless, the later one should be chosen.

If in a solar month Mrutha thithi is not available then , sradha can be performed in the previous month but not in the later month. If we do sorrow will come to us.
Sradha should be performed annually in the thithi in which the person dies. If he does not do , he would take birth as Chandala in the next one crore births. So even if the danger comes to our life, we have to perform Sradha.

XXIII Sradhe thithi kaladhi niroopanam
(The analysis of suitability of Thithi to Sradham)

In the thithi which extends to the afternoon , Yekodishta should be performed. In thithis which are in the Aparahna, parvana sradha should be performed.

Three muhurtha or Six Nazhigais or 144 minutes is considered as morning. The next three muhurtha is called Sangava kala. The next three muhurthas are termed as Madhyahna period. The next three muhurthas is called Aparahna and the next three is called Sayahna. Sayahna is not suitable for rituals.
In the day time there are 15 muhurthas. Each Muhurtha is 2 Nazhigai or 48 minutes . These 15 muhurthas are called Chaithra, Salaghara, Savithra, Jayantha , Gandharva, Kuthabha, Rouhina, Virincha , Vijaya , Nairutha, Mahendra, Varuna and Bodha.

3.Kala Nirnayakara
The week days are divided in to two, three and four parts , But Vedas recognize only the split in to five parts . So that is the most superior.
The eighth muhurtha n the day time is Kuthabha. Kuthabha and the four muhurthas following it is the proper time for doing Sradha. So the time between 15 Nazhigai *each of 24 minutes) to 24th Nazhigai is the proper time for Sradha. Aparahna in the period from 19 Nazhigai to 24. That is the most suitable for Sradha. (approximately after 12 noon)
The periods starting from Kuthabha kala till Sayahna is the most suitable period for Sradha.

If the previous and following days are such that thithi spreads in Aparahna , then Sradha has to be performed in the Aparahna thithi. If the second one is a kshaya thithi and the first one is an Aparahna thithi, the sradha should be performed in the first thithi. If the second one is an Aparahna thithi and the first one is a vrudhi thithi ,Sradha should be performed in Aparahna Thidhi. If in both days thithi is not found in Aparahna , the Sradha should be performed in the first thithi.

In rituals for Pithrus , the thidhi which is connected to the asthamana (setting of sun ) is considered as poorna.(complete)

XXIV Sradha kadhinaam vibhakthai pradhaganushtanam
(Performance of sradha separately by brothers)

If brothers divide the father?s wealth or if they eke out a living by money earned by themselves , then such brothers should perform Darsa (Amavasya) , Apthika(First annual ceremony) and Pratyapthika (usual Sradham) separately.
If the widow who does not have sons is in periods, she should perform the Sradha after the fifth day.
Even if we are in deep trouble, the first annual Sradha should not be performed in the Aama Roopa. If it is not possible to perform it in the Thidhi, it could be performed, in the Amavasya or Krishna Ekadasi. If these come within a taint period, it could be performed after the taint period.
In the sradha for father the importance is for father, grand father and great grand father. Similarly in the mother?s sradha the importance is for mother, grand mother and great grand mother.

Apasthamba prescribes homa and Pinda for father, grand father and great grand father in the Sradha for mother. But Arghya and Varana are done for the mother?s side also.
In Yekodishta , Sapindeekarana , Masika and Apthika , The Tharpana with Gingelly is not performed But in case of other Sradhas including Mahalaya Sradha , Tharpana has to be done.

XXV. Mala masa niroopanam
(the particulars of Mala masa)

From the Shukla Paksha Prathama (that Prathama following Amavasya) till the next Amavasya is the lunar month. If the first day of solar month does not occur within a lunar month , that lunar month is called Mala Masa. This month is not suitable for any rituals.
If two Sankramana (solar month first) comes in a lunar month it is called Kshaya masa. This also is not suitable for rituals.
The Kshaya masa is also called Amhaspathi. This is very rare. The lunar month in which is Kshaya ends suddenly and the next month will come.
A solar moth with two Amavasya is called Samsarpaka masa. The first month of the athi masa which is samsarpaka is not suitable for any rituals. The next month is suitable. Similarly in case an athimasa is a Kshaya masa , the first month is suitable and the second month is not.

1.Vrudha Vasishta
The inauguration of streams, well and tank , soma yaga and great Dhanas should not be performed in the mala masa.

2.Kala Nirnaya
Jatha Karma, Pumsavana , Seemantha and Vruthas can also be performed in mala masa. The death ceremonies also can be performed.

XXVI. Darsa Sradham
(Amavasya Sradham/tharpanam)

1.Vishnu Purana
Oh King, he who does Darsa sradha every month in the Krishna Paksha as well as Amavasya satisfies the entire world.
One whose father is no more, should definitely do Darsa sradham. If a Brahmin does not perform Darsa Sradham on Amavasya , he has to perform redemption.
In the Darsa sradha we have to choose father, grand father, great grand father as well as mother, grand mother and great grand mother. There is no separate aim for the maternal grand parents in darsa sradha.
In Darsa, Ashtaka , Sankramana , vyatheepatha and Grahana (eclipse) , we have to take bath , do Tharpana with Gingelly and then do Darsa Sradha.
All Pithru rituals have to be done in Aparahna. If Amavasya sets before performance of Sradha , then it is not suitable.
Leave out that day where less amavasya is there in Aparahna and perform it on the day when it is more in Aparahna.

2. Narada
If Amavasya is spread in Aparahna of two days , the first thithi has to be chosen for fading and next for increase.

XXVII. Ardhodhaya mahodhaya punya kala niroopanam
Finding out of Ardhodhaya and mahodhaya punya kalas.

If in the month of Pushya or Magha , the Vyathee patha ends in the first part of Amavasya , or middle period of Sravana star (thiruonam) or during sun rise or on Sunday , that period is known as Ardhodhaya punya kala If the first four occurs on a Monday , it is Mahodhaya punya kala (?)
If Amavasya occurs on a Monday , Sapthami thidhi occurs on a Sunday , Chathurthi occurs on Tuesday and Ashtami on Wednesday these days are equivalent to the solar eclipse.

XXVIII. Ashtaka Sradha niroopanam
The time for Ashtaka Sradha

The Ashtami thithi which occurs in the months of spring and autumn are Ashtaka Punya kala. i.e Ashtamis occurring in the months of Margaseersha, Pousha, Magha and Phalguna. In each of these sradha has to be performed in Poorvethyu (previous day to ashtaka), Ashtaka and Anvashka (next day to ashtaka).i.e on Sapthami, Ashtami and Navami days.
In the Pournami of Magha month , Ashtami and Kettai concurrently occur in the Krishna Paksha, This is called Yekashtaka .Apasthamba is of the opinion that it is an important ashtaka.
In the Ashtami of Bhadrapada and Magha masa, people who cannot afford to do Sradha should at least do a Gingelly Tharpana.

IXXX. Mahalaya Sradha Niroopanam
The particulars of Sradha during Mahalaya Paksha

Sradha has to be performed for 15 days when Sun enters Kanya Rasi .

When Sun is in Kanya rasi during the Krishna Paksha , sradha has to be performed daily. The Fifth day from Ashada Pournami is very appropriate for performing Sradha. By Performing sradha on that day we can get longer life, health , sons and wealth.
When Surya enters Kanya rasi , it is considered as auspicious. It is sufficient if it is in the beginning, middle or end of the rasi. Some saints tell that sradha has to performed for 16 days starting from one Prathama to another Prathama. Both views are acceptable. But follow one Shastra. In Madhaveeya is mentioned that it could be done either for 15 days or 16 days. But Paksha consists of only 15 days. This is accepted by everybody. When Surya enters Kanya Rasi , the manes reach their sons. At that time Yama?s place is completely empty. The manes come with the belief that their sons will feed them by doing Sradha and they will not be hungry.. So in the Pithru paksha sradha should be at least performed for one day. If not done they will be waiting till the beginning of the next month. If we do not do sradha, they would curse us and go back. Bharani , Ashtami , vyatheepada and Dwadasi are considered more important among the 15 days. The Sradha performed during this period is called ?Sakruth Mahalaya Sradha?.
In Mahalaya Sradha the following manes are addressed. Viswedevas, father, mother , mother in law , The manes of the mother?s family , Pithruvyaya, aunt , uncle, mother?s sisters, Woman of the family, sister, daughter ,wife , father in law, mother in law , Sister?s husband , daughter in law m brother in law, Guru, Aacharya, Swami and friends. These are called Karunika Pithrus. The specialty of Mahalaya Sradha is that each of them are worshipped separately.
Mahalaya Sradha should not be performed before the Sradha of mother and father. Mahalaya should not be performed in that month. Mahalaya should be performed only after performing the Sradha of mother and father. Some people because they should not do it in the Parvana way, do it in the Hiranya form, do Tharpana and feed the Brahmins, Understand that this is also proper.

XXX. Vrudhi sradha niroopanam
Sradha performed for progress ? particulars

1.Vishnu Purana
The father has to do Jatha Karma and Nama karana for his sons. At that time he can perform nandi Sradha.
When performing Namakarana, Annaprasana , Choula, Samavarthana , Somayaga , Upanayana, snana karma , Kanya Dhana and Vivaha, Nandi sradham should be performed. These are done by the father for the sake of the son.
Nandi sradha should be performed in the Poorvahnna. This is the first 10 Nazhigai (i.e 4 hours) of the day from sun rise. In Nandi sradha Curd , Ilandai pazham and Akshatha should be mixed with the pinda and Pinda pradana done. Gingelly should not be used, The Swadha word should not be used, And it should not be performed with sacred thread on right shoulder (Prachina vidhi).The Durba should not be spread facing south .It could also be done in the Hiranya form, if one cannot afford . When you do several rituals together Nandi Sradha need to be done only once.

XXXI Sradhe Desa kaladhi niroopanam
The differences in Sradha according to time and place.

That which is given with devotion to a good Brahmin , aimed at manes (Pithrus) is called Sradha. . Sradha performed aimed at only one mane is called Yekodishta and the one performed aimed at three ancestors is called Parvana.
These are further divided in to Nithyam , Naimithikam and Kamyam. one in which a Brahmin is given meals daily for the sake of Pithrus is called Mruthaha sradham. Darsa Sradha and Mahalaya Sradha are called Nithyam, Pretha Sradham, Sapindeekaranam, Sankramana Sradham , Grahana Sradham are classified as Naimithikam and Manvanthi sradham , yugadhi sradham, mahodhaya sradham and Vyatheepada sradham are called as Kamya.
The place and time performed, the suitability of the Brahmin, money, the performer and Pithrus are the reasons for proper completion of a Sradha.

Pithrus become happy in Sradha performed in natural surroundings, mountains, sacred waters, sacred places and in places which are clean and has solitude,
It is better performed in the mud floor cleaned by cow dung in one?s own house.

Sradha , Japa, Homa, Thapas performed in Pushkara , mahodhadhi, prayaga, Kasi and Gurujangalam gives one non decaying strength.

4, Pithru Gadha
The Pithrus will always wish for some man to be born in their family who will do sradham for them in Gaya Seersham and Akshaya vatam.

Manu says that we should never test a Brahmin in sacred waters. Any one coming with a request for food should be fed.

Amavasya, vyatheepada, Sankramana , Vaidruthi, Ashtakas, Manwadhis , Yugadhis , Mahalaya Paksha, Eclipse of sun as well as moon, Gajachaya , Money and learned Brahmins determine the apt time to perform Sradha.
In rituals of God, the Brahmins can be used without testing them but in case of Pithru Karmas (rituals of manes) they have to be tested. We should find out whether they have clean lineage , whether they have learned Vedas and whether they observe aacharas.

Among the son who has learned Vedas but his father who has not learned Vedas, and one who has not learned Vedas but his father has learned Vedas, who should be called for Sradha? The man who has not learned Vedas fully but whose father is a learned Vedic pundit should be invited.
The money given to one who has learned Vedas and who is fit to be worshiped , would grant us great strength. So in Pithru Karmas we should call great Brahmins.
We can call that Brahmin who is interested in chanting of Gayathri and who leads his life according to religious rules. That Brahmin who though is an expert in Vedas but who eats in all places, who leads a life selling everything and who does not take bath or do Sandhya Vandhana should not be chosen for the Pithru Karmas,
He who does Agnihothra, He who knows Nyaya Sasthra, he who knows the six branches of Vedas, He who knows Manthras, He who protects Dharma, He who worships Guru, God and fire, He who is wise, He who worships Lord Shiva and he who has devotion to Vishnu are termed as Pankthi Pavanas (holy people). They can be called for Pithru karmas. If a Sanyasi lives in a village we should inform that we are performing Sradha to him.
Those who tell Vedas during the banned times of Amavasya and Prathama , Those who do not have good Aacharas and are unclean and those who eke out a living from the fourth caste are people who are finding fault with Brahmins.
In the month or Paksha in which Sradha comes , one should not crop and shave and also avoid having sexual relation with women.
The place where Sradha is to be performed should be cleaned using cow dung and water. Then we have to sprinkle Gingelly (til) on that space.
Wheat , Paddy, Barley , Gingelly , garden pea, mustard , Paryangu (?) , Govidhara (?) and Avarai (lab lab beans) are suitable for the Sradha.
Without black gram Sradha cannot be performed.
Curd , milk, cooked rice , ghee and Jaggery should be used in Sradha. These satisfy the Pithrus for one month.
The Pithrus who are satisfied by honey, give us all that we want. So honey should definitely used in Sradha. Jack fruit, banana fruit , Pomegranate , Mango fruit , Grapes , Bitter gourd, cucumber , Avarai , snake gourd , Plantain , Curry leaf , Elephant foot yam (karunai Kizhangu) , ginger and Lime should definitely be used in Sradha.
Presenting cloth according to our financial capability is considered good.

Some important points in performing Sradha:-

1.After 12 Nazhigais (about 11 am) , you have to give oil and Choorna (powder soap/shampoo) to the Brahmins and they should be requested to take bath. Then the man who performs the Sradha should take bath. In Dwadasi powder of gooseberry should be given.

2.When performing Avahana, Argya, Sankalpa, Pinda Dhana , Thilodhaka , Akshayya , asana , Padhyam and Annadhana , we have tell our name and that of the Gothra.

3.When you are doing Avahana of Devas , rice has to be sprinkled on right foot, left foot, right knee, left knee and head of the Brahmin. When we do Avahana of Pithrus sprinkle Gingelly on head, left shoulder , right shoulder, left knee, left foot and right foot.

4.The Brahmins participating should not gossip or talk unnecessarily.

5.For devas we can hold the thumb and in case of Pithrus they should be invited (amanthranam) along with the thumb.

6.They should neither praise or find fault with the food.

There are many such rules. Consult elders in your family about them.

Veda says that Pithrus are Vasus, Pithamaha (grand father) are rudras and prapithamaha ( great grand father) are Adhithyas. Except the Mruthaha Sradha others can be performed as Ama Roopa or Hiranya Roopa.
When you cannot afford to do Sradha, feed sufficient grass to cows. They can be fed with rice balls (pindas) . We can do Thila Tharpana addressing the Pithrus. When you do Tharpana , you should take bath and wear dried cloths.
He who is not able to do Sradha , if he performs the representative of the rituals with devotion, he gets the same effect as having performed Sradha.

XXXII Sradha Prasamsa
Praising Sradha

There is no other rituals which gives comfort to the man greater than Sradha. So he who seeks comforts should perform Sradha.

He who worships Pithrus, devas and fire are worshipping Lord Vishnu who is in all beings. By performing the Worship of Pithrus they get long life, sons, fame , heaven, name , health , strength, luck , cows, money and grains. So Grahasthas (married people) should perform Sradha with devotion.

Thus ends the chapter on proper worship of manes in Samkshepa Dharma Sashtra.